Karnataka Current Affairs – KAS/KPSC Exams-24th December 2018

KMF launches buffalo milk

  • Karnataka Milk Federation (KMF) released buffalo milk in packs that need no refrigeration up to 90 days.
  • This milk has A2 protein, 6 % fat and 9 % solid non-fat content.
  • They are holding talks with Defence forces. The milk packets may be sent for military supplies
  • The buffalo milk comes in 500 ml packets.
  • They will be manufactured in various places in the State. In Belagavi, 60,000 litres of buffalo milk is being processed per day.

Bengaluru: Bioaerosols on the rise in city


  • It isn’t just dust and noxious gases that are floating in the air that we breath. You also have bacteria, fungus and other microbes, which could contribute to the rise of allergens and respiratory infections in the city.
  • Since 2010, Bengaluru University has been monitoring bioaerosols, in the form of bacterial contamination and fungal spores in the air. The annual average number of bioaerosol ranged between 64,000 Colony Forming Units per cubic metre to 89,000 CFU/m3.
  • While there are no standards for bioaerosols in the country, researchers say this exceeds the 10,000 CFU/m3 limit prescribed by the World Health Organisation (WHO) for indoor air quality.

Seasonal variation

  • The study, which also looked at seasonal variation, shows that the city is always under a barrage of bioaerosols, with bacterial microbes and fungal spores alternating in their peaks.
  • The pre-monsoon season, stretching from March to May, records the worst biological pollution quality, with CFU/m3 reaching upwards of 1,02,000.
  • Warm temperatures in the city, coupled with urban heat island effect that can see certain areas record more than 37 degree Celsius, is believed to encourage bacterial growth.
  • Many bacterial organisms thrive in these warm temperatures, note researchers whose meteorological observation point to an increase in average temperature in the city from 24.1 to 24.4 degree Celsius in the past seven years.
  • During winters, when the air is slightly chiller, fungal spores dominate bioaerosols. The lowering of humidity (to around 27%, compared to 50-60% in other seasons) ‘enhances’ spore formation.

Solid waste

  • Solid waste is a major contributor to bioaerosol pollution. Rotting waste sees microbial release and is a platform for mould and fungal growth
  • When released, they attach themselves to particulate matter pollution, which is on the rise through vehicles, construction and other pollution sources.
  • These minute particles are the ideal platform for bacteria to grow on. The smaller the particle, the greater its reach in the lungs, and greater the health hazard
  • Of concern is particulate matter which is less than 1 micron in size and can reach the smaller tracts within the lungs.
  • Currently, State agencies monitor particulate matter on two parameters: of 10 microns or less in size and of 2.5 microns or less. The monsoon, which subdues much of the particulate matter, seeks lower bioaerosol counts in the city.

Bioaerosols not monitored

  • Karnataka State Pollution Control Board (KSPCB) said bioaerosols are not notified as a pollutant by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), preventing regular monitoring.
  • There is talk of monitoring PM1 levels due to its health consequences. But, even at the national level, there has been no discussion on bioaerosols
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