Drop in married women using modern family planning methods
- Karnataka has recorded a decline in use of modern family planning methods by married women, with just over 50 per cent of them using them, the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4) for 2015–16 has revealed.
- The survey shows that 51.8 per cent of married women in the 15 to 49 age group are using “any method” of family planning, with the decline in terms of percentage during the last one decade at 11.8 per cent. It stood at 63.6 per cent in NFHS survey (2005–06).
- There has been a decline in all categories. While women using “modern method” stood at 51.3 per cent in 2015–16, it was 62.5 per cent in 2005–06, a decline of 11.2 per cent. The percentage of women undergoing sterilisation saw a decline of 8.8.
- While the percentage of men undergoing sterilisation is always low compared to women, there has been a further decline since the previous National Family and Health Survey (NFHS).
- The percentage of male sterilisation has declined from 0.2 per cent in 2005-06 to 0.1 per cent in 2015-16.
- In the overall family planning scenario, the unmet need for family planning — currently married women in the age group of 15 to 49 — was 10.4 per cent against 10.1 per cent in 2005-06 NFHS. Unmet need for spacing was 6 per cent in 2015-16 against 5.7 per cent in the last decade.
Infant mortality improves
- The NFHS has some good news on the infant mortality front.
- There has been a decline from 43 per 1,000 live births to 28 in the last decade.
- Under-five mortality rate has also declined from 54 per 1,000 live births in 2005-06 to 32 in 2015-16.
- It said anaemia remains widespread in the country as more than half of the children in 10 out of 15 States are still anaemic.
- In Karnataka, 60.9 per cent of children in the age group of 6 to 59 months are anaemic compared to 70.3 per cent in 2005-06.
- A total of 44.8 per cent of non-pregnant women in the age group of 15 to 49 are anaemic.
- Karnataka’s preference for male children appears to be only getting worse. While child sex ratio (females per 1,000 males) stood at 922 in the last NFHS survey, it has declined to 910 now.
- What is even more shocking is the divide between the urban and rural areas, with rural areas clearly less biased against girl children.
- While child sex ratio stood at 875 in urban areas, it was 935 in urban areas. In the overall population too, there is a decline in the number of females, down from 1,028 to 979.
- The data shows a sharp increase in the percentage of women who are literate from 59.7 in 2005-06 to 71.7.
- The bigger strides have been made by urban women, at 81.8 per cent when compared to their rural counterparts who are at 63.8 per cent. The percentage of those with 10 years of education has also jumped from 27.8 a decade ago to 45.5.
- Percentage of girls getting married below the age of 18 has come down dramatically, from 41.2 to 23.2.
- This drop appears particularly significant when compared to the earlier rounds of the NFHS. For instance, the drop from NFHS-2 to NFHS-3 was by just 4.5 percentage points.
- The NFHS-4 data for Karnataka indicates that women have a greater role in decision making in the household and in money transactions.
- As opposed to 68.6 per cent who participated in decision making as revealed by the earlier survey, the current one pegs the numbers at 80.4 per cent
- Percentage of women with savings accounts they use themselves has gone up from 22.1 to 59.4.
- More number of women being empowered, they face no less violence within their households
- The latest survey had 20.5 per cent of women reporting spousal violence, as opposed to 20 per cent in the earlier round.
- While quality of antenatal care continues to be poor, the proportion of women registering within the first trimester has actually decreased from 70.9 per cent to 66 per cent.
- Although only 32.9 per cent of pregnant women received all components of antenatal care, this figure is higher than 24.8 per cent that was reported in NFHS-3 (2005–06).
- The proportion of pregnant women who consumed iron folic acid tablets (critical for tackling anaemia) for 100 days or more during pregnancy has increased from 28.2 per cent to 45.3 per cent.
- Compared to the NFHS-3, there has been improvement in terms of infant and under five mortality rates. While the infant mortality rate has reduced from 43 per 1,000 live births to 28 per 1,000 live births, mortality rate among children under five years of age has reduced from 54 to 32 in a decade.
Increase in C-sections
- The data shows that private hospitals have reported a higher number of C-section and institutional deliveries.
- Births delivered by caesarean section have seen a rise from 15.5 per cent to 23.6 per cent in a decade. While a drastic increase has been recorded in C-section births in the private sector (from 31.9 per cent to 40.3 per cent), C-section deliveries in government hospitals has come down marginally from 17.2 per cent in 2005–06 to 16.9 per cent in 2015–16.
- While institutional deliveries have increased from 64.7 per cent to 94.3 per cent, a point to be noted is that only 61.4 per cent of this was reported in government hospitals.
Stark rise in obesity levels
- A stark rise in obesity levels among both men and women. The proportion of men who are obese has 10.9 per cent to 22.1 per cent when compared to the last round of NFHS (2005–06), and among women it has gone up from 15.3 per cent to 23.3 per cent.
- Equally stark is the difference in urban and rural population on this front. While 17.1 per cent of rural men are obese when compared to 28.6 per cent rural men, the difference between rural and urban women is 16.6 per cent and 31.8 per cent, as revealed by this NFHS
The NFHS-4 was conducted from February 25 to June 20, 2015 in Karnataka and information was gathered from 23,842 households, and 26,291 women and 3,743 men.