Section-I: History and Cultural Heritage (India & Karnataka ) 
Section II: Social and Political Perspective
Section III – Indian Economy,Planning and  Rural Development

PAPER – II General Studies 1

Section – I : History and Cultural Heritage (India & Karnataka ) – (6 Units)

Unit 1: Cultural Heritage of India (select areas and topics)

(i)  Indus  Civilization  –  Distinction  between  Indus  Civilization  and  Vedic  Civilization–  Evolution  of  Varna, Jathi/caste system – Religious condition – emergence of religious movements.

(ii)  Literature: Sanskrit Literature (Ancient) : Vedic Literature, the epics and the Puranas: their impact on the life and culture of the Indian People; Prose works on polity, ethics (neeti), popular stories and Pancha Tantra (only important works); Mughal contributions to literature.

(iii)  Science  and  Technology:  Mathematics,  Astronomy,  Physics,  Chemistry,  Botany,  Zoology,  Physiology  and Medicine (including Surgery), Ship-building, Mining and Metallurgy, Engineering and Architecture.

(iv)  Arts (Excluding Karnataka): The Maurya and Gupta periods; The Khajuraho temples; Jain temples at Mount Abu  and  the  Odishyan  temples;  Pallava,  Chola  and  Pandyan  contributions.  The  Mughal  architecture; Cathedral  architecture:  Bom  Jesus-Old  Goa,  St.  Paul’s-  Kolkata  and  St.  Thomas-  Chennai.   Painting  : Ajanta  frescoes;  Mughal  and  Rajput  schools  of  painting.  Dance  and  Music:  Classical  music  and  dance; Mughal contributions to music. Folk arts of India.

(v)  India’s  cultural  contributions  to  the  outside  world:  Central  Asia,  China,  Japan,  South-East  Asia  and  Sri Lanka.

(vi)  Religions of India-

(i)  Hindu  Dharma:  General  characteristics  and  some  common  beliefs  –  Purusharthas–  rituals  and ethics – festivals and sacred days – pilgrimage and fairs. Hindu sects: Hinduism as a federation of various  sects  –  Shaiva,  Vaishnava  and  Shakta.   Philosophy  of  the  Upanishad  and  the  BhagavadGita – Yoga Philosophy of Pathanjali.

(ii)  Jainism: Principles – Ratnatraya, code of morals, Equality (samana), Ahimsa,. Sects: Digambara and Swethambara.

(iii)  Buddhism: Principles – Four noble truths, The Eight – fold path, Nirvana, Moral doctrines. Sects: Hinayana and Mahayana

(iv)  Christianity: Teachings of Jesus Christ. Christian doctrines and theology. Groups in Christianity – The Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern orthodox churches and the Protestants churches. Missionary activities in India

(v)  Islam: Principles and practices – God, Confession of Faith, Five “Pillars of Islam”, sacred places and days, the family system and the shariah, Sufis of Karnataka, Sects: Shia and Sunni.

(vi)  Sikhism: Principles and practices and its Evolution.

Unit 2 : Toward transforming Indian Society : Major schools of thought.

Modern Indian History – from the beginning of 19th Century, Reforms and Reformers,

  1. Eradication of Social and religious wrongs
  2. The Vedas for all – The Casteless society
  3. Ideal of service
  4. Emancipation of the Depressed class
  5. “Two-Nation” theory and Islamic revivalism
  6. Empowerment of the Depressed class through religion and education
  7. Hindutva and Patriotism
  8. The Dravida Movement
  9. Struggle for emancipation of Dalits and their empowerment
  10. Socialist approach and Total Revolution
  11. Gram Swaraj, Satyagraha and Bhoodana

Unit 3 : From Kadambas to the Hoysalas.

(i)  Antiquity  of  Karnataka;  Kannada  language  and  literature;  Extent  of  Kannadanadu;  State  and  District Gazetteers; Museums and Archives in Karnataka; Preservation and protection of historical monuments – work of Archaeological Survey of India – World Heritage Sites in Karnataka.

(ii)  From Kadambas to the Hoysalas : Contributions to Architecture, sculpture, literature and religion.

Unit 4 : The Vijayanagara Empire and thereafter (1336-1799).

(i)  Vijayanagara  Empire:  Origin,  aims  and  aspiration  of  the  Empire  –  Vidyaranya.  Political  history  :  Harihara, Bukka,  Immadi  Devaraya,  Krishnadevaraya  and  Aliya  Ramaraya  –  The  battle  of  Talikote  and  its consequences.  Glory  of  the  capital  –  Administration  –  Society,  economy  and  religion;  Arts:  Painting; Music, Dance, Literature, Architecture and Sculpture; Foreign accounts of Vijayanagara.

(ii)  Religious sects: Shankaracharya, Ramanujacharya, Madhwacharya – Sri Basaveshvara, Veerashaivism and Vachana movement – Haridasa movement – Kalamukha, Shakta and Pashupatha sects.

(iii)  The  Bahman  Shahis  :  Mahamud  Gawan  –  Contributions  of  the  Bahamani  –  Adil  Shahis  of  Bijapur: Contributions to literature and architecture – Sufis in Karnataka.

(iv)  Chikkadevaraja Wodeyar – Contributions; The Nayakas of Keladi and Chitradurga; Rani Chennamma & Sangolli Rayanna of Kittur, The Yalahanka Nadaprabhu; Hyder Ali and Tippu Sultan (1761-1799).

Unit 5 : Modern Mysore (1799-1947).

(i)  Krishna raja Wodeyar lll – his contributions;

(ii)  Armed rebellion in Karnataka against the British in Karnataka

(iii)  Commissioner’s Rule (1831-1881)

(iv)  Nizam’s rule in Hyderabad – Karnataka

(v)  Progress of Mysore under the Dewans.

Unit 6 : Freedom Movement in Karnataka and Unification (1885-1956).

(i)  Rise of Nationalism; Pre-Gandhian era (1885-1920); Gandhian era (1920-1948).

(ii)  Freedom movement in Hyderabad – Karnataka

(iii)  Important personalities in Freedom Struggle.

(iv)  Unification of Karnataka; Causes for the rise of unification movement – Alur Venkatrao – Role of literacy, cultural associations and print media – Three stages in the unification of Karnataka (1947-1956).

(v)  Social and Cultural developments: Spread of education by missionary and voluntary bodies – printing and the press – Literary and Scholarly studies – New literary genres in kannada literature – Backward Class movement – Miller Committee Report, Folk arts of Karnataka.

Section II – Social and Political Perspective – ( 7 units )

  1. Post Independent  Karnataka –  Towards  Political  Consolidation  –  Attempts  of  Successive  Governments  – Backward Classes and Social Justice – Reports of : Havnur Committee – Venkataswamy Committee – Chinnappa Reddy Committee – Recent Trends – Dalit Movement – Devaraja Urs and Land Reforms. Language Issue: Gokak Movement  –  Issues  and  Perspectives.   Inter-State  Disputes  –  Boundary  Disputes  –  Mahajan  Committee  Report and its impact – Water Disputes – Farmer’s Movement, Regional Imbalance & Nanjundappa committee Report.
  2. Social Change  and  Movements –Social  structure  and  social  change,  Theories  of  Social  Change,  Social Disorganisation and Social movements, directed social change, social policy and social development.
  3. Social Change  and  Modernisation  – Problems  of  role  conflict  –  intergenerational  gap,  youth  unrest  & commercialization of education, emergence of India as Educational Force – changing status of women and social movements,  industrialization  and  urbanization,  role  of  pressure  groups,  Sanskritisation,  westernisation  and modernization  –  Modernism  versus  traditionalism.  Current  social  evils  –  fundamentalism  and  terrorism, Naxalism, Nepotism, corruption, and black money.
  4. Government and  Political  System –  Legislature,  Executive  and  Judiciary,  functioning  of  democratic  political system in a traditional society, political party and their social composition.
  5. Decentralisation of  power  –  Decentralisation  of  power  and  political  participation.  Union  Government, Parliament, Cabinet, Supreme court, Judicial review, Center-State relations, State government, role of Governor, Panchayathi  raj,  class  and  caste  in  Indian  politics,  politics  of  regionalism,  linguism,  and  communalism. Problems of secularisation policy and national integration, Political participation & voting, vote bank politics.
  6. Socio Economic System – The  Jajmani  system  and  its  bearing  on  traditional  society. Market  Economy and  its social consequences, Occupational diversification and social structure, Profession and professionalisation, role of trade  unions,  social  determinants  and  consequence  of  economical  development,  economic  inequalities, exploitation and corruption, Globalisation and its social impact.
  7. Rural Social  system  and  Rural  Development –  Socio  cultural  dimensions  of  village  community,  traditional power  structure,  democratization  and  leadership,  poverty,  indebtedness,  bonded  labour,  social  consequences  of land  reforms,  Rural  development  projects,  green  revolution,  new  strategies  of  rural  development,  the  changing rural scene.

Section III – Indian Economy – Planning- Rural Development (8 units)

  1. Indian Economy  –  Post  independence  growth  –  experience  of  agriculture,  industry  and  tertiary  sectors,  growth and distributive  justice. Poverty  and  inequality, Growth of  Karnataka  Economy during  the plan era,  growth  and sectoral changes and linkages in the State Economy.
  2. India and International economic relations– Growth and trade – volume, composition and direction of exports and imports,  domestic  and  foreign  capital  in  economic  development,  changes  in   India’s  foreign  trade  policy, balance of payments and foreign exchange. Karnataka’s exports – volume, composition, and direction.
  3. Development patterns and  disparities  among  regions  and  between  rural  and  urban  areas,  public  policies  to mitigate  disparities,  prospects  and  problems  of  Special  economic  zones.  Development  disparities  in  Karnataka and public policies, Redressel of development disparities. Regional development boards.
  4. Planning – Planning goals, objectives and approaches, achievements and failures of five year plans (I to VII Five year plans). Development plans under the new economic policies regime (VIII Five year plan onwards). Planning in Karnataka.
  5. Decentralization –  pros  and  cons  of  top-down  planning  and  bottom-up  planning,  planning  mechanism  and experience in Panchayathi raj institutions, planning and capacity building, planning and financing. Decentralized planning  in  Karnataka,  Resource  mobilization  and  devolution.  District  Planning  Committee,  State  finances  and local finances. State finance commission.
  6. Rural Development –  Importance  of  agriculture  in  the  national  economy,  Gandhian  approach  to  rural development and land reforms, size of farms and productivity, problems of irrigation and dry land farming, food security, rural credit, agricultural marketing, agricultural labour, rural industries and employment. Agricultural problems in Karnataka, Rural Economic infrastructure (Energy, Irrigation, Transport, Communication, Markets), Rural  Social  Infrastructure  –  Housing,  Drinking  water,  Sanitation  &  Drainage,  Rural  Health  systems  and  their delivery. Development of Economic and Social infrastructure in Karnataka, Rural markets in Karnataka. Rural housing and health care schemes in Karnataka.
  7. Rural Development  Initiatives –  Poverty  Alleviation-cum-Employment  generation  Programmes,  Five  Year  Plan and  inclusive  growth,  rural  financial  institutions,  Development  and  conservation  of  common  property  resources in rural areas – village grasslands and woods, water bodies, Provision of urban amenities in rural areas (PURA). Rural Development schemes in Karnataka, self help groups and micro finance institutions in Karnataka, External assistance for rural tank rejuvenation, drinking water, sanitation and health care in Karnataka.
  8. Data Collection Analysis- Interpretation- Collection, Interpretat ion  and  Appreciation   of  Statistical  Data- Study  of  Graphs  and  Charts:–  Bar  Graphs,  Line  Graphs  and  Pie  Charts-   Problems  Based  on  Tabular  and  Diagrammatical Data- Data Sufficiency in Statistics- Problems Based on Probability- Permutations and Combinations-Quantitative  Aptitude – Number  Sequences,  Series,  Averages,  Number  Systems,  Ratio  and Proportion, Profit and Loss, Percentages,  Time  and  work,  Speed-Time-Distance,  Simple  Interest,  Analytical and Critical Reasoning, Reading Comprehension

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