The programmes currently implemented can be divided into
Lets run through the programmes under subheadings as follows
Further which can be studied under
PROVISION OF GOOD QUALITY SEEDS
Seed is a basic input for enhancing agricultural productivity. Its estimated that quality of seed accounts for 20-25% of agricultural productivity. As per the Seed Replacement Norms, Seed Replacement Rates fixed for different Agricultural Crops for 2014-15 is as follows:
Cereals : 33 to 38 percent
Pulses : 33 percent
Oilseeds : 33 to 89 percent
Cotton : 33 percent
All Hybrids : 100 percent
Before we go any further lets be clear on certain terminologies
What are breeder, foundation and certified seeds
Breeder seed –is seed directly controlled by the sponsoring plant breeder whose production is personally supervised by a qualified plant breeder and which provides the source for the initial and recurring increase of foundation seed Breeder seed shall be genetically so pure as to guarantee that in the subsequent generation shall confirm to the prescribed standards of genetic purity
Foundation seed: Foundation seed shall be the progeny of Breeder seed
Certified Seed: Certified seed shall be the progeny of foundation seed and its production shall be so handled as to maintain specific genetic identity and purity according to the standards prescribed for the crop being certified
Which agencies produce breeder seeds
Production and supply of Breeder Seeds of different crops is being done by the State Agricultural Universities and Indian Council of Agricultural Research Institute (ICAR) Institutes.
Which are the agencies that can produce certified seeds?
Anybody willing to come forward to produce certified seed can produce certified seed.The Seed Association of India is the Nodal agency for supply of breeder seeds to the private seed producing agencies Certified Seed production and distribution in the State is being done by Karnataka State Seeds Corporation, National Seeds Corporation, Karnataka Co-operative Oilseed Growers Federation, State Agricultural Universities and number of private seed supplying agencies
What is Seed Replacement Rate?
Seed Replacement Rate is the percentage of area sown out of total area of crop planted in the season by using certified/quality seeds other than the farm saved seeds
SEED PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION
1. STATE SECTOR SCHEMES
a.Supply of Seeds and Other Inputs scheme
The objective of this programme is to supply hybrids, high yielding varieties and good quality certified and truthfully labelled seeds of major crops to farmers at subsidized rate During Kharif 2014, it was programmed to distribute 12 crop seeds in subsidy for L1 rates to farmers. During Rabi/Summer 2014-15, it was programmed to distribute seeds of 12 crops at subsidy rates.
b. Special package for Ragi and Jowar production (New Programme):
A special package is given to increase the productivity of these crops. The package includes seed minikits of improved varieties, promotion of quality seed production and processing etc
Various state sector seed supply and investment schemes have a component of seed supply at subsidised rates like BHOOCHETANA, SAVAYAVA BHAGYA YOJANE etc
d. Karnataka Seed Mission
Since 2008-09 under RKVY(RASHTRIYA KRISHI VIKAS YOJANE)
- enhancement in agricultural productivity through increased SRR & Comprehensive Development of all facts of seed sector in Karnataka through a mission mode approach.
- make Karnataka a Global Destination for seed production identify gaps in seed requirement, production and infrastructure for quality seed production and marketing
- farmer centric approach in varietal development, seed production and marketing.
- to strengthen Certified Seed Production and
- Certified Seed distribution programmes
2. CENTRAL SCHEMES
various central sector schemes as below have a component of quality seed distribution in order to achieve their respective objectives.
1) NATIONAL MISSION ON OIL SEEDS AND OIL PALM (NMOOP)
2) NATIONAL FOOD SECURITY MISSION – WHEAT, PADDY, PULSES & COARSE CEREALS
3) NATIONAL FOOD SECURITY MISSION – CASH CROPS
These programmes will be discussed later under their respective categories.
SEED PRODUCTION SUPPORT
a. Karnataka Seed Mission
b. Swabeejabhivridhi Yojane
It is programmed to extend various benefits to seed production farmers like subsidy for foundation seeds, creation of infrastructure facilities viz., seed storage godowns, processing equipments etc. which will be useful in seed production and thereby encourage more people to take up seed production
b. Seed Risk Fund:
The demand of seeds would vary with seasonal conditions and also market situations. Sometimes the entire seeds produced to meet the demand may not be utilized resulting in carry over or may have to be disposed off as non-seed. To protect the Govt., agencies like Karnataka State Seed Corporation, Karnataka Oil Federation and State Agriculture Universities, against these losses and to pay the difference between the prices disposed for non-seed purpose and the seed price the fund is made
c. Research in newer varieties of seeds
New Varieties Recommended for Release by UAS Bangalore
- UASB-Pigeonpea: BRG-5 is a Fusarium wilt resistant variety with duration of 165-170 days with an average yield potential of 25 q/ha under field conditions. The variety is recommended for cultivation in Zone-5 and suitable for both rainfed and irrigated conditions.
- UASB-Groundnut: KCG-6 is a Spanish bunch variety with a medium duration of 108-112 days with an average pod yield potential of20 q/ha, kernel yield of 15 q/ha and oil yield of 735 kg/ha registering 38% increased yield over the check TMV-2 (15 q/ha) and high oil content of 49%. The variety has tolerance to late leaf spot and rust disease. It can be cultivated both under rainfed as well as irrigated condition and recommended for Cultivation in Zone -5
Agricultural university at Dharwad
- has sent for registration to PPV and FRA New Delhi (Protection of Plant Varieties & Farmers’ Rights Authority) certain crop varieties like cotton-sahana, Black gram-DW-1, Chick pea – BGD-103,Ground nut – GPBD-4, GPBD-5 DH-86,DH-101 and TGLPS – 3, Sorghum –DSH-4, SSV-74, DSV – 4 and DSV-5.
- University has registered the Germ plasm of Wheat crop – UAS – 447 and UAS – 334 with NBPGR (National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (India), New Delhi.
Strategies and programmes have been directed towards replacement of traditional and inefficient implements by improved ones, enabling the farmers to own tractors, power tillers, harvesters and other machines, availability of custom hire services, support services of human resource development, testing, evaluation and research & development.
A huge industrial base for manufacturing of the agricultural machines has also been developed. Introduction of technologically advanced equipments through extension and demonstration besides institutional credit has also been taken up. Equipments for resource conservation have also been adopted by the farmers.
a. Farm Mechanization Programme
- 2001-02 upto 2012-13
- Centrally Sponsored Scheme
- implemented under Macro Management Mode of Agriculture (Work Plan)
- 25% subsidy was provided as per the assistance norms indicated by Government of India.
- 2003-04 –State govt began contributions -the rate of subsidy was increased to 50% with the State share of 25% in addition to the Central share of 25%.
- From 2008-09 Central fund under Macro Management Mode of Agriculture (Work Plan) was being used as a matching grant to State fund. After exhausting the Central fund, the entire 50% subsidy for farm machineries is borne by the State fund.
From 2013-14, the Macro Management Mode of Agriculture (Work Plan) will not be implemented as per the Govt. of India Guidelines
b. Karnataka Farm Mechanization Mission
- Under Rashtriya Krishi Vikas yojana
- Popularize mechanized farming in order to reduce drudgery in farm operations, labour use, to save time and to cover more area in short span of time
- Mechanized farming helps to increase efficiency in farming operations and ultimately results in higher production and productivity
In 2014-15 the scheme is being implemented both under Central (RKVY) and State sector
50% subsidy -general category farmers and 90 % subsidy – SC ST.
c. Custom Hiring Centres
- Agriculture Census
Small and marginal holdings – 76.44% of total holdings and operate only 40.05% of total opearational area
semi-medium, medium and large holdings – 23.57% of the total holdings and their operational land holding is 59.95% out of the total operational area.
- Establishment of Custom Hire and Service Centre (CHSC) in order to facilitate use of farm machinery by small and marginal farmers through custom hiring
- In the State, 186 CHSCs are being established one each at the every sub block level
Under various other schemes like Technology Mission for Oilseeds, Pulses and Maize, Technology Mission on Horticulture, Technology Mission on Cotton and National Food Security Mission, financial assistance is provided to the farmers for the purchase of identified agricultural implements and machines.
d. Solar Pump sets
- The Programme has to be implemented in Chitradurga and Bagalkote districts on pilot basis and solar pump set will be distributed at 50% subsidy or maximum up to Rs.3 lakhs/solar pump set
- Advantages of solar pump sets—
- cost effective,
- low maintenance,
- generates power locally,
- energy conservation and is environmental friendly.
- less dependent on labour
- saves time
- could be used in area of water scarcity.
- formulated to make up for the shortage of electricity,
- to adopt modern technology
- MNRE (Ministry of New and Renewable Energy) standards will be followed during distribution of solar panels
Micro irrigation or drip irrigation, also known as trickle irrigation or localized irrigation, is an irrigation method that saves water and fertilizer by allowing water to drip slowly to the roots of plants, either onto the soil surface or directly onto the root zone, through a network of valves, pipes, tubing, and emitters. It is done through narrow tubes that deliver water directly to the base of the plant.
The advantages of drip irrigation are:
- Fertilizer and nutrient loss is minimized due to localized application and reduced leaching.
- Water application efficiency is high if managed correctly
- Field levelling is not necessary.
- Moisture within the root zone can be maintained at field capacity.
- Soil type plays less important role in frequency of irrigation.
- Soil erosion is lessened.
- Weed growth is lessened
For all its advantages central government started a mission to promote drip irrigation
e.National Mission on Micro irrigation
- Implemented by the Department of Agriculture
- encouraging judicious use of water.
- The Central Assistance was provided from the year 2006-07.
- 75% and 90% subsidy till Dt: 17-12-2013
- Now subsidy has been enhanced to 90% (GoI share 40%+ GoK share 50%) for all category of farmers for installation of Drip and Sprinkler irrigation systems
f. Soil health mission
- To issue soil health cards to all farmers of the Karnataka in a span of three years, so as to provide a basis to include nutrient deficiencies in fertilization practices.
- To diagnose soil fertility related constraints with standardized procedures for sampling and analysis and design taluka/block level fertilizer recommendations in the targeted districts.
- To develop crop specific nutrient management in the districts for enhancing nutrient use efficiency.
- To promote soil test based balancing of nutrients to manage fertility related risks for higher production.
- To conduct demonstrations with diversified crops to quantify benefits of improved nutrient management practices in terms of increased crop yields and economic viability of farmers.
- Implementation includes
- collection of soil samples
- analysis of soil samples for macro nutrients and micro nutrients
- this will be linked to K Kissan project in issue of farmer passbook including soil fertility status and crop specific recommendation of nutrients to all the farmers of Karnataka.
- The demand for organic sources of plant nutrient like bio-fertilizers, organic manure, vermi-compost, slow release nitrogenous fertilizer like Neem/ sulphur coated urea will increase, which in turn improve the soil fertility as well nutrient use efficiency.
ORGANIC FARMING PROMOTION
Organic farming aims at production of quality and safe agricultural produce which contain no chemical residues, following eco-friendly production methods and farming systems that restore and maintain soil fertility.
g. Savayava bhagya yojane
- 2013-14, state government flagship programme
- extension of the earlier Organic village/site programme to hobli level with few modifications in its implementation viz, developing good marketing linkages and market development for the organic products of the state.
- implemented in association with the NGO’s selected for each taluk –entrusted with responsibility of bringing around 100 ha. area under organic farming in each hobli of the taluka
- Programme implemented in 571 hoblis of the state.
- Constitution of Site Committee comprising representatives from farmers associations, NGO representative and Department officer to prepare action plan for implementation of the Programme.
- Green manure seeds, azolla pits, biodigester units, Gobbar gas units.
- Compost & vermi Compost Units, cow urine pits, cement pits for preparation of liquid manure viz panchagavya, jeevanmrutha etc.
- Bio-fertilizers, organic manures, enriched manure, oil cakes
- Organic Seeds and Seedling.
- Perennial Fodder seeds and cuttings
- Pest & Diseases management eg. Biopesticides, parasites, predators etc..
- Community Seed Bank, Community library.
- Honey bee boxes & honey harvester.
- Value addition, Processing, Packing, Marketing.
- Consumer Awareness programme.
- Documentation ofTraditional Practices,Success Stories.
Convergence of line department programmes into the project area:
- Forest Tree saplings
- Forest nursery development
- Vegetable Kitchen garden.
- Cattle, Buffalo, goat, sheep, poultry, Fish
- Cementing of the cow shed floors to collect dung & urine
- Soil & Water Conservation structures.
Food Grains and Oil Seeds
National Food Security Mission (NFSM)
- CSS, Started in 11th Five Year Plan. It was focused on increasing yields in
low-yield districts using a variety of known interventions, with particular attention to availability of quality seeds.
- During 12th Plan it has been programmed to achieve higher production and productivity of Coarse Cereals and Commercial crops (Cotton & Sugarcane) in addition to Rice and Pulses.
- NFSM-Rice: (7 Districts – Belgaum, Shimoga, Uttara Kannada, Dakshina Kannada, Udupi, Haveri & Yadgir) –for 100Ha. area cluster demonstrations
- Rice production technologies, Distribution of improved varieties/ hybrid seeds,inputs for Integrated Nutrient and Pest Management, Agricultural machinery, Pumpsets, Drip irrigation sets and pipes for carrying water were provided under subsidy, organization of trainings.
- NFSM-Pulses: (All 30 districts) – similar strategies
- Additional Rabi Pulses Production Programme:
- NFSM-Coarse Cereals: (11 Districts Bagalkote, Belgaum, Bellary, Bijapur, Chitradurga, Davanagere, Gulbarga,Haveri, Koppal, Raichur & Tumkur)
- 100 Ha. area cluster demonstrations on improved production technologies (Varieties and Hybrids), Ridge Furrow Method of Sowing and Cropping system based demonstrations on inter cropping with pulses
- NFSM – Commercial Crops:
- Cotton: (15 Districts- Belgaum, Bellary, Bijapur, Chamarajanagar, Chitradurga, Davanagere, Dharwad, Gadag, Gulbarga, Haveri, Koppal, Mysore, Raichur, Uttara Kannada, Yadgir)
- Sugarcane: (12 Districts- Bagalkote, Belgaum, Bellary, Bidar, Bijapur, Chamarajanagar, Davanagere, Gulbarga, Mandya, Mysore, Shimoga &, UttaraKannada)
- The implementation of NFSM Rice & Pulses in the State from 2007-08 has helped to achieve 15% increase in area, 24% increase in production and 9% increase in average yield of Rice during 11th plan period over the average of 10th plan period. Similarly, in case of pulses also the percentage increase in area, production and yield was 17%, 53% and 31% respectively, over the average of10th plan period
RASHTRIYA KRISHI VIKAS YOJANA (RKVY)
- a Special Additional Central Assistance Scheme from 2007-08
- to reorient the Agriculture Development strategies for rejuvenation of Agriculture to meet the needs/demands of farmers.
- It incentivizes the States to increase public investment in Agriculture and allied sectors and aims at achieving the goal of reducing the yield gaps in important crops
- RKVY funds given to schemes like
- Karnataka Farm Mechanization-Custom Hire Services Centres
- Strengthening of Bhoochetana -Phase 2
- Karnataka Seed Mission
NATIONAL MISSION OF OILSEEDS AND OIL PALM
- CSS , 75-25, started during this year
- increasing production and productivity of these crops and to attain sustainability in Agriculture. three Mini Missions i.e.
- MM-I on oilseeds,
- MM-II on oil palm,
- MM-III on tree borne oilseeds.
- The Scheme is being implemented in all the 30 districts of the state.
- In Karnataka, National Mission on Oilseeds (MM-I) operates in two sectors, state sector and ZP sector
RAINFED AREAS SCHEMES
Rainfed agriculture is used to describe farming practises that rely on rainfall for water. 70% of the cultivated area in the State is under rainfed agriculture. Despite this limitation, 55% of food grain production and 75% of oilseed production is contributed by the rainfed areas. Thus, conservation of high quality natural resources like soil and water, enhancement of agriculture productivity and income levels of farmers/ agriculture labourers needs to be ensured.
- 2009-10, GOK flagship programme
- novel mission mode project ‘Bhoochetana’ -goal of increasing average productivity of selected rain fed crops by 20 %
- 1st phase-2009-10 to 2012-13.
- 2nd phase -2013-14 to 2016-17
- Consortium partners of the project are Karnataka State Department of Agriculture, UAS, Bangalore/ Dharwad/ Raichur and ICRISAT, Hyderabad
- Main strategies:
- Soil test based nutrient management with a major thrust to micro nutrients ,
- distribution of inputs @ 50% subsidy at cluster village level,
- services of farmer facilitators for transfer of technology,
- wide publicity through wall writings, posters, village meetings and mass media,
- effective project monitoring and feedback.
GOK-CGIAR” INITIATIVE FOR IMPROVING THE RURAL LIVELIHOODS IN KARNATAKA” BHOOCHETANA PLUS) SCHEME:
- GOK flagship programme
- To form action oriented consortium of CGIAR (Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research) institutions in partnership with Agriculture and line Departments in the State to increase crop yields by 20% and farmers income by 25% over a period of four years.
- To establish four sites of learning on pilot basis, scaling-up approach integrated participatory research for development to benefit small and marginal farmers in irrigated and rain fed agriculture areas representing the revenue divisions of the state
- 2013-14 to 2016-17)
- Bijapur, Chikkamagalur, Raichur and Tumkur on pilot basis in
- an area of 20000 ha in each district
- by converging ongoing schemes of Agriculture & allied departments.
- GOK flagship programme
- improving livelihood of rain dependent farming community in rainfed areas
- the scheme in a Mission Mode in a phased manner over five years.
- major dry land zones in 23 districts covering 107 taluks.
- conservation, storage and efficient use of rain water,
- adoption of profitable cropping systems,
- cultivation of high income earning horticultural crops,
- promotion of animal husbandry activities and
- promotion of infrastructure creation for agriculture, the scheme aims to achieve sustainable growth in agriculture
WATERSHED DEVELOPMENT SCHEMES
What is Watershed?
The word watershed refers to a “contiguous area draining into a single water body or a water course” or “it is a topographical area having a common drainage”. This means that the rainwater falling on an area coming within a ridgeline can be harvested and will flow out of this area thorough single point. Some refer it as a catchment area or river basin.
What is Watershed Development ?
Watershed development refers to the conservation regeneration and the judicious use of all the resources – natural ( like land, water plants, animals) and human – within the watershed area. Watershed Management tries to bring about the best possible balance in the environment between natural resources on the one side and man and animals on the other.
WHY WATERSHED DEVELOPMENT ?
Man and his environment are interdependent. The changes in the environment directly affect the lives of the people depending on it. A degraded environment means a degraded quality of life of the people. Environmental degradation can be tackled effectively through the holistic development of the watershed. A watershed provides a natural geo-hydrological unit for planning any developmental initiative.
WATERSHED DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
- 2001 – 2009
- Sujala a community driven watershed development project implemented by the Government of Karnataka in partnership with several non-governmental organizations and the World Bank in seven predominantly rain-fed districts in Karnataka.
- key development objective was to improve the productive potential of selected watersheds and their associated natural resource base, and strengthen community and institutional arrangements for natural resource management.
- Satellite images taken at regular intervals from a height of 900 kms provided accurate thematic data – such as land use and land cover, groundwater prospects, soil characteristics etc. – for large catchments as well as micro-watersheds.
- Sujala was the first project to deploy this technology effectively over a large area. It also expanded its use to map resources, prioritize areas for treatment, carry out on-going monitoring and evaluation, and assess impacts. This was also the first time that high-resolution satellite images were placed before grassroots communities to help them plan interventions.
- This was achieved through having the community groups implement the project, the project’s collaborative approach and capacity building initiatives. The Government of Karnataka financed some portion of the budget and the Watershed Communities contribute some portion.
Karnataka Watershed Development Project-II (Sujala -3):
- links with the centrally financed IWMP which was started in the year 2012- 13
- 4 and 5 and 6th batch of IWMP areas in 11 districts of the state were selected to cover under Sujala-3 over six years
- Project components: The project has five components.
- Component 1: Support for Improved Program Integration in Rainfed Areas
- Component 2: Research, Development and Innovation.
- Component 3: Institutional strengthening
- Component 4: Strengthening Horticulture in Rainfed Areas,
- Component 5: Project Management and Coordination
Integrated Watershed Management Programme
- CSS, 10:90 cost sharing
- Method of Implementation: 3 different phases
A) Preparatory Phase activities: Entry point activities which are related to Natural Resources Management will be implemented; gain the confidence of the people of rural ; awareness generation
B) Work Phase activities: Year wise action plan -approved in the Gramasabha. Rainwater harvesting- the soil conservation activities like bund formation, etc , dryland horticulture, forest, animal husbandry and fisheries activities ;encouraging the Self Help Groups to take up the income generating activities.
C) Consolidation and withdrawal phase:
Special Development Plan:
a. Watershed Training Centre:
To impart training on Watershed Development activities two training centers have been established each one at Vijayapura and Mysore
During 2013-14 the scheme has been implemented by constructing water harvesting structures as well as trench cum bunds and field bunds/bunds. This scheme is implemented under SDP Taluks.
Rain water harvesting, ground water recharge, drought proofing, employment to agriculture labours, protective irrigation to crops during critical conditions and facilitation of drinking water to animals.
Rastriya Krishi Vikasa Yojane:
Rainfed Area Development Programme (RADP):
- Integrated farming systems have to be adopted for overall development of rainfed agriculture.
- For a cluster of villages based on survey of farm holdings, existing farming practices, farm & family size, soil & nutrient characteristics, level of farm inputs, availability of water & farm power etc., a suitable farming system based interventions is undertaken under RADP.
- Activities like agriculture, agro-forestry, horticulture, livestock, fisheries, apiculture etc., as per the land capability, climate and local conditions are adopted.
The River Valley Project:
- take up all the balance activities in the 24 ongoing sub watersheds to treat them completely to achieve the desired objectives.
- This programme aids in prevention of soil loss from the catchments to reduce siltation of multipurpose reservoirs & enhance the in-situ moisture conservation and surface rainwater storages in the catchments to reduce flood peaks & volume of runoff.
- This scheme has been closed on March- 2014.
Prime Minister’s Relief Package:(Sujala-II)
- 2008- 09 to 2013-14
- A Special Package i.e., Prime Minister’s Rehabilitation Programme (Sujala-II PMRP [RIDF])- for ameliorating the hardship of farmers in districts reporting high incidence ofsuicides. This project was implemented in 41 Taluk of 6 distressed districts covering 314 micro watersheds under 59 Sub watersheds. In the State, Belagavi, Hassan, Chitradurga, Chickamagaluru, Kodagu and Shivamoga districts have been identified.
- to implement the project on sujala model to treat an area of 1.50 lakhs ha under Forestry, Horticulture, Animal Husbandry, Land Treatment, Fisheries, Income Generating Activities and other programmes.
- The project was financed by NABARD.
- Impact of the Project (as per ANTRIX [ISRO] Evaluation Report):-
- Observed in improvement in the under Ground Water by increase of yield in 10%
- Increase in the cropping intensity from 132% to 144%.
- Increase in the average crop yield by19%
- Annual house-hold income was increased by 21% due to increase in employment.
Fisheries in farm ponds and other harvesting structures:
Integrated approach of Animal Husbandry coupled with fisheries is bound to yield significant increase in income levels of targeted group besides ensuring sustainable livelihood. Rain Water Harvesting Structures like Farm ponds, Nalabunds, Minor tanks, Saline & waterlogged areas and other water holding structures offer excellent opportunity for fisheries development in watershed areas.
Campaign for Check Dams:
- Objective of the Scheme:
- Rain water harvesting,
- ground water recharge,
- drought proofing,
- employment to agriculture labors,
- protective irrigation to crops during critical conditions and
- facilitation of drinking water to animals.
- through construction of water harvesting structures like Check dam, Nalabund, Percolation Tank etc.,
Yettinahole (Netravathi) Diversion Project
- The project is designed to quench the water-starved districts of Kolar, Chickballapur, Tumkur, Bangalore Rural, Ramanagaram and Bangalore
- Project Report of June 2012 was titled: ‘Scheme for diversion of flood water from Sakleshpura (West) to Kolar/ Chikkaballapura Districts (East)
- The water lifted would be conveyed over a distance of 288 km through a gravity channel to Byragondlu in Koratagere taluk of Tumkur district where a tank would be replaced by a new reservoir to be built to store 5.78 tmcft of water. From here, water would be further channelled to the Tippagondana Halli reservoir, Hesaraghatta tank and Manchanabele reservoir covering towns in Tumkur district, Bangalore Rural, Devanahalli and Ramanagaram district.
Current Project, is divided in Two Phases.
- 8 weirs will be built in the Western Ghats, on the streams Yettinahole, Kerihole, Kadumanehole and Hongadahalla. It also includes several pump houses next to weirs, raising mains that run for several kilometers are nearly 5 kms wide, 3 Delivery Chambers (DC) and a gravity canal taking waters from Weirs 3, 4 and 5 to Doddanagara (DC 3) in the Western Ghats forests.
- From the weirs, 85 cumecs (Cubic Meters per second) water will be drawn 24*7 in the six months of June-November.
- This will be delivered through 4 Delivery Chambers with the last DC: DC 4 at Haravanahalli.
- From DC 4, water will be diverted to a canal running 274 kilometers, cutting across the ridge line dividing Cauvery and Krishna Basins and culminating at a Balancing Reservoir at Byragondlu and Thumbadi, in Koratgere Taluk. Thumbadi Reservoir will store about 3 TMC water and will submerge nearly 700 hectares of land and three villages while Balancing Reservoir at Byragondlu will store 5.7 TMC water and will submerge 7 villages and an area of about 2000 hectares. The Reservoir at Devaranyadurga, which was proposed in the Project Report has been replaced by these two.
- It includes construction of several storage tanks and reservoirs for en route water supply. It will also delivery water to T.G. Halli and Hesarghatta Reservoirs, which supply water to Bangalore. It also plans to supply water to Devanhalli Industrial Area.
- The project envisages constructing 7 additional storage reservoirs and 10 major canals. Water will also be used to fill more than 500 Minor Irrigation (MI) Tanks in many districts and taluks.
Cost of this current Project
- The cost of the Project as per DPR stands at nearly 13000 Crores as per 12-13 price line.
Who are the Main Beneficiaries
Main beneficiaries of the Project:
Kolar , Chickaballapura, Tumkur, Hassan, Chikamagalore, Ramanagara, Bangalore Rural district, Augmenting the water to T.G.Halli reservoir, Augmenting water to Hesaraghatta reservoir, Drinking water supply to Devanahalli Industrial area and surrounding areas, Providing water for tank filling purposes to fill selected M I Tanks to their 50 % capacity (average) in the M I tanks falling under Palar and Pennar basins and Arasikere taluk
Minor Irrigation Tanks and hence irrigation gets maximum water at 9 TMC: Nearly 9 TMC water will be used for filling more than 500 MI tanks upto 50% of their live storage capacity. This water will be supposedly used for “groundwater recharge”. There are several participatory, cheap and sustainable ways for recharging groundwater, which seem to have been rejected in favor of long distance transfer. In any case, this groundwater recharge will be used for agriculture, as most of the agriculture there depends on groundwater and hence, the project qualifies for Environmental Clearance.
Criticism of diversion
- There has been NO assessment of downstream water needs or impacts of this diversion on the downstream people or ecosystems.
- The project proponent has not even clarified as to what will be forest land required for diversion. The section on Impact Assessment in the EMP deals largely with the beneficiary region without dealing with impacts on Wesetrn Ghats at all. There has been no study on flows as per the HLWG (High Level Working Group on Western Ghats/ Kasturirangan Committee Report)report, no study of estuarine fisheries, no study of drinking water needs.
- The ecosystem and livelihoods in the downstream are closely linked to the hydrology of the Netravathi. In fact even in June, which is supposed to be a “peak season” for diversion, Mangalore and other parts of Dakshin Kannada have been facing water shortages
- In addition, there are several estuarine and riverine fishermen dependent on the Netravathi for their livelihoods.
- There are many industrial areas, SEZs coming up in Mangalore which will be needing more water. While there has been a prospective study of the population and water demand growth of the beneficiary region in the DPR, there has been not even a mention of Mangalore and its increasing needs in the future.
- There are several functioning mini hydel projects on the individual streams as well as tributaries which depend on the assured flow from upstream. They have not even been consulted before this decision was taken.
- The project falls within 10 kms boundary of the Pushpagiri Sanctuary, one of the specific World Heritage Sites in the Western Ghats
- The entire region has exceptional biodiversity. The project also affects the Mysore Elephant Reserve.
- The region has exceptional fish biodiversity, with several new species being discovered from the region. There have been efforts to declare this area as a specific fish sanctuary
- Man Animal Conflicts in Sakaleshpura are on a rise. Mega infrastructural activities envisaged in Yettinahole Project will worsen the situation further.
- There has not been a single open public consultation held by the proponents or the Karnataka Government in the affected region. This indicates lack of respect for democratic values and transparency.
- It has been based on weak hydrology, nonexistent impact assessment of the downstream region, no Forest Clearance, no Wildlife Clearance and no public consultations. It is violating Environment (Protection) Act 1986, Forest (Conservation) Act 1980 and Wildlife (Protection)Act 1972.
- The project provides no justification for diverting 24 TMC, plans to divert more volume than that, most of which is meant for urban areas and irrigation, without options assessment of cheaper and more sustainable options.
- The project has illegally awarded tenders worth Rs 1000 crores without clearances.
- Only 24 tmcft of the 2,000 tmcft of water, which is the total yield of the Netravati, will be utilised
- Only up to 300 hectares of forest land is being acquired for the project. The Forest Department would be given alternative land which has been cleared by the Union Ministry of Environment and Forests
- The project would not affect the eco-system in the coastal areas as feared by some environmentalists as water is drawn from eight streams during the rainy season from June to November and stored in the reservoirs and tanks to fulfil water needs during the summer.
- Help rejuvenate the ground water and help prevent fluorosis in Kolar & chikballapur
National Horticulture Mission
- National Horticulture Mission is a centrally sponsored scheme launched in 2005-06
- Aim is to enhance horticulture production and improve the nutritional security and income support to farm households and others through area-based regionally differentiated strategies.
- The scheme is not available in:
- Andaman & Nicobar and Lakshadweep
- 7 North East States and Sikkim
- Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand
- Rest all states and UTs are covered.
- The North East States, HP, J&K and Uttarakhand are covered under the Technology Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture in the North Eastern States (TMNE).
- The scheme is not available to coconut and medicinal plants, rest all horticultural crops are covered. For Coconut, there is Coconut Development Board and for medicinal plants, there is National Medicinal Board along with National Mission on Medicinal Plants.
- NHM is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme
National Horticulture Mission is a flagship scheme and being so, it covers almost all sections of horticulture development from Nursery level to Marketing level.
- Plantation Infrastructure and Development-Nurseries, Tissue Culture labs: The support is available for setting up a nursery for producing quality plant material. However, nursery should be minimum with 1 hectare in area.
- Establishment of New Gardens
- Rejuvenation of Old and Senile Orchards
- Integrated Pest Management/Integrated Nutrient Management
- Protected Cultivation
- Organic Farming
- Pollination Support through Bee keeping
- Creation of Water Sources
- HRD ( such as at Krishi Vigyan Kendra)
- Post Harvest Management
- Primary Processing
- Contract Farming
- Mushroom Cultivation
- Precision Farming
PRAGATI is a unique integrating and interactive platform. The platform is aimed at addressing common man’s grievances, and simultaneously monitoring and reviewing important programmes and projects of the Government of India as well as projects flagged by State Governments.
- The PRAGATI platform uniquely bundles three latest technologies: Digital data management, video-conferencing and geo-spatial technology.
- It also offers a unique combination in the direction of cooperative federalism since it brings on one stage the Secretaries of Government of India and the Chief Secretaries of the States.
- With this, the Prime Minister is able to discuss the issues with the concerned Central and State officials with full information and latest visuals of the ground level situation. It is also an innovative project in e-governance and good governance.
- It is a three-tier system (PMO, Union Government Secretaries, and Chief Secretaries of the States).
- Prime Minister will hold a monthly programme where he will interact with the Government of India Secretaries, and Chief Secretaries through Video-conferencing enabled by data and geo-informatics visuals.
- Issues to be flagged before the PM are picked up from the available database regarding Public Grievances, on-going Programmes and pending Projects.
- The system will ride on, strengthen and re-engineer the data bases of the CPGRAMS for grievances, Project Monitoring Group (PMG) and the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. PRAGATI provides an interface and platform for all these three aspects.
- It will also take into consideration various correspondences to PM’s office by the common people or from high dignitaries of States and/or developers of public projects.
- It is also a robust system for bringing e-transparency and e-accountability with real-time presence and exchange among the key stakeholders.
- The system has been designed in-house by the PMO team with the help of National Informatics Center (NIC).
PM’s interaction through PRAGATI
The Prime Minister of India recently chaired his third interaction through PRAGATI – the ICT-based, multi-modal platform for Pro-Active Governance and Timely Implementation.
- Initiating his interaction, the Prime Minister expressed satisfaction that PRAGATI was speeding up decision-making processes in vital projects and important areas of governance. He also said that the spirit of problem-solving and swift implementation, which is being generated through the PRAGATI interactions, is gradually spreading to all areas of governance.
DD Kisan – India’s first television channel dedicated to farmers
Prime Minister Modi recently launched DD Kisan Channel, which would provide information about best agricultural practices and related content. It is Doordarshan’s channel dedicated exclusively to farmers.
About the Channel:
- Kisan Channel would facilitate the farmers in providing information regarding the policy initiatives undertaken in the Agriculture sector. It is the first such initiative of a Public Broadcaster to start a 24 hour channel exclusively dedicated to the farmers.
- The platform would enable the benefits of technology accruing to the farmers. This channel would inform, educate and update the farmers with the latest developments in the area of farming on a 24×7 basis.
- The non-Hindi speaking farming community would also be benefitted by the launch of Kisan channel as the various programmes would also be available in other regional languages.
- Advice of IMD Scientists and Agricultural Scientists would be broadcast periodically for the farmers so that they may know about the crop diseases, ways to protect crops from various diseases and on how to increase the crop yield.
- The Channel will give information on newer ways of agricultural practices being followed world over and the R&D in the agri sector across the world.
- The Channel has tie up with IMD, IARI, Agricultural Universities, Krish Vigyan Kendras etc.