Rural Developement


The Karnataka Panchayat Raj (Amendment) Bill, 2015

The Bill Provides for

  • Making voting compulsory in panchayat elections.
  • The electorate to select None Of The Above (NOTA) option while exercising their franchise.
  • Increasing the terms of office of presidents and vice-presidents of gram, taluk and zilla panchayats from the present 30 months to five years.
  • The continuation of rotation of reservation of SC, ST and Other Backward Classes and non-reserved category up to 10 years and provides for one half reservation to women in all panchayats

However, there is no penal provision against those who violate the “compulsory voting” clause. “As many as 22 countries have made voting compulsory and only 10 of them impose penalty on electorates who do not turn up at polling booths.

Why this amendment?

  • Government wanted to make voting compulsory in panchayat elections to ensure greater participation of people. Gujarat and Rajasthan have already made voting compulsory in panchayat elections.
  • There were all sorts of malpractices at panchayat level due to short tenure of the president and vice-president . The members are indulging in a lot of politics instead of development. A full five- year tenure will prevent these activities.

Model Question:
The Karnataka legislative assembly passed the Karnataka Panchayat Raj (Amendment) Bill, 2015. Which of the following statement is true with respect to the Bill?
i. It makes voting compulsory
ii. It provides for 50% women reservation in local bodies

Select correct answer using the code given below
A. i only
B. ii only
c. i and ii
D. None of the above

Grama  Swaraj  Project

What is it?

  • It is a programme initiated by Karnataka for strengthening the Panchayat system

Where/From when is it being implemented?

  • Panchayat Strengthening Project  is  being  implemented from  last  7  years,  covering  1341  gram pachayats  of  39  most  backward  taluks  of the state identified by DR. D.M Nanjunadappa’s  High  Power  Committee Report.
  • Implementation of  the  Project  has been  successfully  completed  on  30th  March 2014.

What is the  Objective  of  the  Project?

  • To ensure higher  investment  by  GPs  to  improve  the Social Indicators, improve revenue mobilization,  improve  monitoring  anddelivery of key services to rural population and  effective  participation  in  local
  • Grant were  released  to  the  1341GPs  of most  backward  Taluks  from  last  6  financial years  based  on  an  objective
  • 172 Samarthya Soudha  Centers  and  5  SATCOM studios are established across the  state to enhance  the  capacity  of

What are the major impact  of  the  Project:

  • Untied and  reliable  block  grants  have created  model  in  local  Governance
  • Assets built are  of  good  quality  and  have raised  the  satisfaction  level  of  local citizens.
  • Double entry  book  keeping  has  made Governance more efficient and transparent.
  • Project intervention  facilitated  higher tax
  • Awareness and  participation  level  in  Gram  Sabha  and  Ward  Sabha  have improved  and  made  GP  functionaries more  responsive  and
  • Project had created permanent infrastructure like  Samarthya  Soudha

Suvarna  Gramodaya  Yojane

What is Suvarna  Gramodaya  Yojane?

  • Suvarna Gramodaya  Yojane  is aimed at developing a  vibrant   village communities by adopting an intensive and integrated  approach to  rural
  • 2500  is  the stipulated  per  capita  grant  under  the programme.

When was it launched?

The  programme  was  launched  on  the occasion of Golden Jubilee Celebrations of the  formation  of  the  State  of  Karnataka, involving  Non Governmental Organizations and  the  village  communities.

What are the Objectives  of  the  scheme?

(a) To  upgrade  the  physical  environment  of the  selected  villages  for  improving  the quality  of  life.

(b)To provide full and adequate infrastructure  for  human  resources development  including  education, health  services,  childcare  facilities  etc.

(c) To  generate  significant  levels  of  non agricultural  employment,  especially  for educated  unemployed  youth.

(d) To support community awareness and development through self-help groups, cultural  associations  etc.

How are villages selected?

  • Selection of  Villages    is  based  on  the  rural population of each taluk in relation to total rural  population  of  the state
  • Funds are allotted at the rate of Rs.2500 to 3000 per capita.
  • In general,  the  villages  having population  above  2500  but  below  8000 have  been selected
  • In the  hilly  and  western ghat areas, the population limit is relaxed.
  • Member of  Legislative  Assembly  has  been entrusted  with  the  task  of  selection  of villages  keeping  view  of  the  population  limit fixed  for  the taluk.

Jal Nirmal Project

  • It is a World Bank Assisted Project is  being implemented  for  providing  safe  drinking water and sanitation facilities for the rural population.
  • It is a demand driven project
  • Being implemented in the  12  districts  of Northern Karnataka i.e Bagalkote, Belagavi,  Bidar,  Vijayapurar,  Dharwad, Gadag, Kalaburagi, Yadgir, Haveri, Koppala, Raichur & Uttara Kannada and  in water  quality  affected  habitations  in  few other districts.

Rural Sanitation

How did Rural Sanitation Programme evolve?

“Nirmal Grama Yojane”  came into  operation from 1995  and  was  implemented  for  8  years. Afterwards  the  Centrally  sponsored  scheme of  “Total  Sanitation  Campaign”  was  in operation  from  2005  to  2012.  This Campaign  was  renamed  as  Nirmal  Bhrat Abhiyan  from  April  2012.  Nirmal  Bhrat Abhiyan  has  since  been  rechristened  as “Swachh  Bharat  Mission”  from  2nd October  2014.

Swachh  Bharat  Mission

What is Swacch Bharat Mission?

  • Under Swacch Bharat Mission, incentive of Rs.  12,000,  of  which,  the  share  of  Centre and the State being Rs. 9000 and Rs. 3000 respectively,  is  being  provided  to  the  eligible beneficiaries,  belonging  to  BPL  category, restricted  APL  families  (which  covers SC&ST  families),  small  and  marginal farmers, landless families handicapped  families  and  women  headed families,  etc),  for  the  construction  of individual  household
  • Incentive 15000/-(Rs.3000/- in excess of the State’s share)  is  provided  to  under  SCP/TSP allocations.

What is the Aim of the Mission?

  • The mission aims at making all villages in the State  defecation  free    Besides,  it has  a  wide  focus  of  providing  Individual sanitation, house sanitation, safe drinking water, suitable disposal of human excreta, disposal  of  waste  and  used  water  etc.
  • SBM contemplates people oriented, demand  driven  and  community participation.
  • Construction of  individual household  toilets,  management of  solid  and liquid wastes
  • Priority has been given to  the  activities  of  Information, Education  and  Communication  and  to build up technically best quality programmes.
  • Various capacity  building programmes  have  been  chalked  out  to  build capacity of the stake holders in a variety of sectors.
  • Simple model  toilets  are  being introduced to convince the rural population who are under the impression/ misconception  that  the  construction  of individual  household  toilet  is  a  costly

What are its Objectives?

1) Construction  of  individual  household toilets  for  families  in  the  rural  areas  who do  not  have  toilets.

2) To improve the standard of living of the rural  people  and  reformation  in  the health  of  the  rural  people

3) Suitable  disposal  of  waste  and  used water  generated  in  the  villages.

4) Construction  of  community  toilets  for the  people  in  a  village  who  do  not  have  a place  of  their  own  for  construction  of individual  toilets  in  a  place  where it  can be  easily  accessible

5) To inculcate  the habit of sanitation and cleanliness  among  rural  children.

6) Maintenance  of  rural  sanitation  or production  centers.

7) Maintenance and supervision of community toilets, keeping cleanliness

Rural Energy Programmes

What are the three programmes meant for Rural  Energy  sector?

There are 3 programmes for Rural Energy in Karnataka. They are

  • National Biogas Manure and Management Programme  (NBMMP)
  • Karnataka State Bio-fuel Policy -2009
  • Soura Belaku are the three programmes implemented under Rural  Energy

1. National Biogas Manure and Management Programme (NBMMP)

What is Biogas?

Biogas  is  a  clean,  non-polluting,  smoke  and soot-free  fuel,  containing  methane  gas produced  from  cattle  dung,  human  waste and other organic matter in a biogas plant through  a  process  called anaerobic digestion. The digested slurry  will be good quality  manure  for  agriculture.

What is NBMMP?

  • This centrally sponsored  scheme  implemented since 1982-83
  • It is mainly a women oriented programme.
  • The Centre has increased the subsidy  rate  with  effect  from  8th  May 2014.
  • Beneficiaries are  selected  by  the  grama panchayats.

2. The Karnataka State Bio-fuel Policy

What are the salient features of Karnataka State Biofuel Policy?

  • The Karnataka  State  Bio-fuel  Policy  has come  into  force  from  1st  March
  • Using only non-edible oil seeds for the production of biofuel. Reserving edible oil seeds for cooking only.
  • Non-edible oil seeds can be sown mainly in dry lands, infertile lands, land unsuitable for cultivation, forest lands in the verge of extinction, in lands owned by the government or private persons. Food security will not be compromised because the growing of non-edible oil seeds in lands that grow food grains is not encouraged.
  • Oilcakes obtained after the extraction of oil, should be encouraged to be used as bio manure.
  • The government should take up the production of these oil seeds with private/public partnership. For example, the growth of different varieties of oil seeds can be encouraged by giving lands to private parties on long-term contract basis.
  • Collecting these seeds in the rural areas and small towns of the state, and encouraging the conversion to oil in a time bound and decentralized manner.
  • Encouraging the communities, women self-help groups and local consumer associations engaged in the traditional oil seeds collection and/or oil production.
  • Provision of facilities by the state government to organizations (government and private organizations) having suitable expertise to increase the production of biofuel and motivate research.
  • Establishment of the required administrative and financial systems by the state government to execute all of the above programmes.
  • Karnataka Bio-fuel  Policy  is  implemented through Karnataka state Bio-fuel Development

3. Soura Belaku

What is Soura Belaku?

  • It is a programme for Installation of Solar Street Lights at Grama Panchayats
  • Soura Belaku  programme was started  during 2009-10
  • It aims at installation of Solar Street Lights  at  grama  panchayat
  • The Programme is  implemented  in  selected  pilot district  –  one  from  each  revenue
  • The programme  is  implemented  through E-Procurement.


There are 3 schemes related to Rural Roads in Karnataka. They are:

1. Pradhana Manthri Gram Sadak yojana (PMGSY)

  • PMGSY was launched   in the State during December  2000  with  the  objective  of providing  rural  connectivity  through  all weather roads  to  the  habitations  having  a population  of  500  and  above.
  • Karnataka Rural Road Development Agency  was  constituted  during  2005  to ensure effective implementation of all road connectivity  programmes.  The  agency  is involved  in  preparation  of  detailed  project reports,  implementation  of  the  works  (as approved  by  Government  of  India)  as  per the  required  standards  and release  grants provided  by  the  Government  of  India.
  • It is a central sponsored scheme under the Rural Development ministry.
  • Money comes from Cess on High speed diesel via Central Road Fund Act
What is the Aim of the Programme

The aim of PMGSY is to construct all weather roads to unconnected habitats of :

  • 500 persons in plains area.
  • 250: tribal, desert and special category- North East, JK, Himachal and Uttranchal
  • Population conditions as per Census 2001

2. Chief  Minister’s  Grama  Sadak  Yojane

The funds  provided have been allocated  to  Zilla  Panchayats  as  per  the Comprehensive  Composite  Development Index  of   Dr .   D.   M.   Nanjundappa’ s Committee  report  on  redressal  of  regional imbalances.

3. Rural  Infrastructure  Development Fund

  • Rural Infrastructure Development Fund (RIDF) was instituted in NABARD with an announcement in the Union Budget 1995-96 with the sole objective of giving low cost fund support to State Govts. and State Owned Corporations for quick completion of ongoing projects relating to medium and minor irrigation, soil conservation, watershed management and other forms of rural infrastructure
  • The Fund is maintained by the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD). Domestic commercial banks contribute to the Fund to the extent of their shortfall in stipulated priority sector lending to agriculture.
  • The main objective of the Fund is to provide loans to State Governments and State-owned corporations to enable them to complete ongoing rural infrastructure projects.
  • The scope of RIDF has been widened to include activities such as rural drinking water schemes, soil conservation, rural market yards, rural health centres and primary schools, mini hydel plants, shishu shiksha kendras, anganwadis, and system improvement in the power sector.
  • From RIDF V onwards, the ambit was extended to projects undertaken by Panchayat Raj institutions and projects in the social sector covering primary education, health and drinking water.

Now lets look into programmes related to Rural Employment and Livelihood.

With respect to Rural Employment and Livelihood, Government schemes can be classified into:
A. Wage Employment scheme (MGNEGS)
B. Self employment schemes.

First lets look into the wage employment scheme:

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme

From when is MGNREGS operational in the state?

It has  been in  operation  in  all  the  districts  of  Karnataka State  since  2006-07  which  is  being implemented  in  a  phased  manner.

What is meant for?

The primary objective of the Act is to provide at least  100  days  of  guaranteed  wage employment  in  a  financial  year  to  every rural  household  whose  adult  members volunteer  to  do  unskilled  manual  work.

What are the Goals of the scheme?

  1.  Social Protection for the most vulnerable  people  living  in  rural India by providing employment Opportunities
  2. Livelihood  security  for  the  poor through  creation  of  durable  assets, improved water security, soil conservation and higher land productivity.
  3. Drought proofing and flood management  in  rural  India
  4. Employment of socially disadvantaged,  especially  women, SCs and STs,  through  the processes  of  a  rights-based  legislation
  5. Strengthening decentralised, participatory planning through convergence  of  various  anti-poverty and  livelihoods  initiatives
  6. Deepening  democracy  at  the  grassroots  by  strengthening  Panchayati  Raj Institutions
  7. Effecting  greater  transparency  and accountability  in  governance
  8. To act as a powerful  instrument  for ensuring  inclusive  growth  in  rural  India through  its  impact  on  social  protection, livelihood security and democratic empowerment.

How is it different from the older employment schemes?

  1. MGNREGA  has  given  rise  to  the largest  employment  programme  in human  history  and  is  unlike  any  other wage  employment  programme  in  its scale,  architecture  and  thrust.
  2. Its bottom-up,  people-centred,  demand driven,  self-selecting,  rights-based design  is  distinct  and  unprecedented.
  3. MGNREGA provides a legal guarantee for  wage  employment.
  4. It  is  a  demand-driven  programme where  provision  of  work  is  triggered  by the  demand  for  work  by  wage-seekers.
  5. There are legal provision for allowances and compensation both in cases  of  failure  to  provide  work  on demand  and  delays  in  payment  of wages  for  work  undertaken.
  6. The  scheme  is  being  implemented  as centrally  sponsored  scheme  on  cost sharing  basis  between  centre  and State  Governments  in  the  ratio  of 90:10  nearly.  Further  under  the scheme labour  material ratio  at 60:40 shall  be  maintained.
  7. Labour  portion  of 60%  borne  fully  by  Government  of India  and  material  portion  will  be shared  between  central  and  State Governments  in  ratio  of  75:25.
  8. Gram Panchayats are to implement  at least  50 per cent of the works  in  terms  of  cost.  This  order  of devolution  of  financial  resources  to GPs  is  unprecedented.
  9. Plans  and  decisions  regarding  the nature  and  choice  of  works  to  be undertaken,  the  order  in  which each work is  to  be  triggered,  site  selection etc.  are  all  to  be  made  in  open assemblies  of  the  Gram  Sabha(GS) and  ratified  by  the  GP.
  10. Works that  are  inserted  at  Intermediate Panchayat  (IP)  and  District Panchayat (DP)  level  have  to  be  approved  and assigned  a  priority  by  the  GS  before administrative approval can be given. The  GS  may  accept,  amend  or  reject them.
  11. Social audit is a new feature that is an integral part of MGNREGA.  Potentially,  this  creates un-precedented  accountability  of performance,   especially   towards immediate  stakeholders.

9 thoughts on “Rural Developement”

  1. great job sir , give stress to kannada material because rural candidate dont have any material regarding civil service exams.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *