TEST 03: ENVIRONMENT AND ECOLOGY

Syllabus : Environmental Pollution

1. Consider the following statements:

  1. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) is the total measurement of all chemicals (organics & in-organics) in the water

  2. Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) is a measure of, the amount of oxygen that requires for the bacteria to degrade the organic components present in water.

Which of the above-mentioned statements is/are NOT Correct?

(A) 1 only

(B) 2 only

(C) Both 1 and 2

(D) Neither 1 nor 2

2. Algal bloom results in which of the following?

(A) Global warming

(B) Salination

(C) Eutrophication

(D) Biomagnification

3. Consider the following Pollutants in the atmosphere:

  1. Carbon dioxide

  2. Sulphur dioxide

  3. Carbon Monoxide

  4. Nitrogen dioxide

Which of the above-mentioned gases are emitted by vehicles?

(A) 1, 2 and 3

(B) 2, 3 and 4

(C) 1 and 2 only

(D) 1, 2, 3 and 4

4. What is the correct sequence for treatment of polluted surface water?

  1. Disinfection and fluoridation

  2. Screening and mixing

  3. Flocculation and sedimentation

  4. Filtration and sludge processing

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(A) 1-2-3-4

(B) 3-4-2-1

(C) 2-3-4-1

(D) 3-2-1-4

5. Which of the following rivers is called biological desert on account of its pollutants?

(A) Yamuna

(B) Periyar

(C) Damodar

(D) Mahanadi

6. Photochemical smog is mainly composed of which of the following gases?

  1. Ozone

  2. Nitric oxide

  3. Peroxyacetyl nitrate

Select the correct answer using the following Code:

(A) 3 only

(B) 2 and 3 only

(C) 1 and 3

(D) 1, 2 and 3

7. The phenomena of Urban Heat Island effect is due to which of the following?

  1. Forest of concrete in the urban area

  2. Low moisture content in the soil

  3. High wind velocity

 Select the correct answer using the following Code:

(A) 1 only

(B) 1 and 2

(C) 2 and 3

(D) 1, 2 and 3

8. Major aerosol pollutant present in the jet plane emission and responsible for climate change is?

(A) Sulphur Di oxide

(B) Chlorofluorocarbons

(C) Carbon Monoxide

(D) Nitrogen Oxide

9. Consider the following statements with respect to Greenhouses gasses contribution to global warming:

  1. Majority of the contribution to the global warming (more than 50%) are from Methane gas

  2. The next major contribution is from Carbon Dioxide and Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)

 Which of the above-mentioned statements is/are NOT correct?

(A) 1 only

(B) 2 only

(C) Both 1 and 2

(D) Neither 1 nor 2

10. Consider the following statements about thermal pollution in a closed water body:

  1. It reduces the oxygen holding capacity of the water body

  2. It hampers the growth of blue green algae

  3. It causes death of fishes in the aquatic system

Which of the following statements given above is/are correct?

(A) 1 only

(B) 2 and 3 only

(C) 1 and 3 only

(D) 1, 2 and 3

11. Consider the following statements with regard to carbon monoxide gas:

  1. It is a foul odour gas which smells like rotten egg.

  2. It is produced as a result of incomplete combustion of carbon.

  3. Paddy field is an important source of carbon monoxide.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(A) 1 and 3 only

(B) 2 only

(C) 1, 2 and 3

(D) 2 and 3 only

12. Which of the following activities can lead to desertification?

  1. Overgrazing

  2. Mining activities

  3. Unscientific irrigation of arid lands

  4. Uncontrolled exploitation of groundwater

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(A) 1 and 3 only

(B) 2, 3 and 4 only

(C) 1, 2 and 4 only

(D) 1, 2, 3 and 4

13. Which of the following are non-point sources of pollution in rivers?

  1. Surface drains carrying municipal sewage

  2. Run-off from agricultural fields

  3. Dumping of un-burnt/half-burnt dead bodies

  4. Dhobi ghats

  5. Effluents from industries

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(A) 1, 4 and 5 only

(B) 2 and 3 only

(C) 2, 3 and 4 only

(D) 1, 2, 3 and 4 only

14. Which of the following are the sources of Methane?

  1. Biomass burning

  2. Landfills

  3. Rice fields

  4. Coal mining

  5. Permafrost

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(A) 3 and 4 only

(B) 1, 3 and 4 only

(C) 1, 2 and 5 only

(D) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5

15. Which of the following is/are constituents of fly ash?

  1. Black soot

  2. Lead

  3. Cadmium

  4. Nickel

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

(A) 1 only

(B) 2, 3 and 4 only

(C) 1, 2 and 3 only

(D) 1, 2, 3 and 4

16. Which one of the following is the correct sequence of the given air pollutants in increasing order of their size?

(A) Smoke < Suspended Particulate Matter < Dust

(B) Suspended Particulate Matter < Smoke < Dust

(C) Smoke < Dust < Suspended Particulate Matter

(D) Suspended Particulate Matter < Dust < Smoke

17. Consider the following statements about Photo Chemical Smog (PCS):

  1. It results from the action of sunlight on Unsaturated hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides.

  2. Due to high concentration of oxidizing agent it is also called oxidising smog.

  3. Pinus and Juniparus plants metabolise nitrogen oxide and help in reducing effects of PCS.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(A) 1 and 3 only

(B) 2 and 3 only

(C) 1 only

(D) 1, 2 and 3

18. Which of the following are released into the environment as e-waste?

  1. Mercury

  2. Lead

  3. Arsenic

  4. Cadmium

  5. Selenium

  6. Brominated Flame Retardants

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(A) 1, 3, 4 and 6 only

(B) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 only

(C) 2, 4, 5 and 6 only

(D) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6

19. What is/are the advantages of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)?

  1. Better understanding of the impacts of the project.

  2. Reduces disputes and confrontation.

  3. Ensures cooperation of the local people in project.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(A) 1 and 2 only

(B) 2 and 3 only

(C) 1 only

(D) 1, 2 and 3

20. Which of the following pairs is/are correctly matched?

Pollutant                    Source

  1. Organo-chlorine: Paper industry

  2. Lead: Paints

  3. Sulphur dioxide: Thermal power plants

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(A) 1 and 2 only

(B) 1 and 3 only

(C) 2 only

(D) 1, 2 and 3

ANSWERS

1. D

  • Chemical Oxygen Demand or COD is a measurement of the oxygen required to oxidize soluble and particulate organic matter in water. Biochemical Oxygen Demand or Biological Oxygen Demand, is a measurement of the amount of dissolved oxygen (DO) that is used by aerobic microorganisms when decomposing organic matter in water.

2. C

  • Algal Bloom are a result of blue-green algae, which are actually bacteria (cyanobacteria). Some algal blooms are the result of an excess of nutrients (particularly phosphorus and nitrogen) into waters and higher concentrations of these nutrients in water cause increased growth of algae and green plants known as eutrophication.

3. D

  • Major Pollutants of Vehicles are Greenhouse gases, Particulate matter (PM), Hydrocarbons (HC), Nitrogen oxides (NOx), Carbon monoxide (CO), Sulfur dioxide (SO2)

4. C

  • Screening — Flocculation and sedimentation — Filtration — Disinfection

5. C

  • Biological desert – where life doesn’t exist i.e. hardly any fish life then it is considered as Biological Desert examples are dead sea, deep blue sea(far from coastlines) etc. In India, Damodar River is called as biological desert.

6. D

  • Photochemical smog contains secondary pollutants called photochemical oxidants. The products formed are ozone, PAN, aldehydes and phenols.

7. B

  • The growing Urban Heat island is due to increase in the concrete floors and building in urban are and soil moisture is getting low are major reasons for this effect.

8. B

9. C

10.C

  • Thermal Pollution: When the discharged water that is released back into the water body is around 10 degrees Celsius higher than the temperature of the water body it is termed as thermal pollution.
  • The rise in temperature reduces the oxygen holding capacity of the water body, as oxygen carrying capacity of warm water is less than cold water.
  • This causes deaths or migration of several fish species like trout etc
  • However, blue green algae growth enhances in the warm water. They produce a toxin which further hampers the biodiversity.

11. B

  • Carbon Monoxide is a colourless and odourless gas.
  • It is produced as a result of incomplete combustion of carbon.
  • Paddy field is an important source of Methane and not Carbon Monoxide.

12. D

  • Desertification is the process of sustained land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas. All the given human activities can lead to desertification:
  • Overgrazing of land exposes soil to forces of erosion and transforms land into barren landscape and finally into a wasteland.
  • Mining activities for extracting natural resources adversely affect the local landscape due to large scale digging up process using most sophisticated mining excavators. These activities affect the moisture content of the soil leading to desertification.
  • Unscientific Irrigation of arid lands for a considerably long period contributes to desertification.
  • Desertification of an area takes place from uncontrolled exploitation of groundwater, mismanagement of watersheds, siltation and drying up of rivers.

13. C

  • Non-point sources: These are non-measurable sources of pollution such as run-off from agricultural fields carrying chemicals and fertilizers, run-off from solid waste dumps and areas used for open defecation, dumping of un-burnt/half-burnt dead bodies and animal carcasses, dhobi ghats, cattle wallowing, etc.
  • Out of the total measurable pollution in the rivers from various point sources, around 75% is contributed by municipal sewage from towns located along the banks of rivers and remaining 25% by industrial effluents.

14. D

15. D

  • Fly ash: also known as Pulverised fuel ash is the light weight substance which tend to fly around in hot flue gases.
  • It includes black soot occurring due to combustion of coal, vapourised particles of lead, cadmium, nickel etc.
  • Fly ash is actively being used in concrete to enhance its strength. However, it negatively impacts the environment by depositing over snow, thus reducing the albedo and initiating melting. Himalayan ecology in particular is negatively impacted by fly ash.

16. A

  • Dust, Suspended Particulate Matter and Smoke are the air pollutant emitted by various sources like combustion of fossil fuels, from Brick Kiln and other industries etc.
  • In terms of increasing order of size, Smoke < Suspended Particulate Matter<dust
  • Following are their sizes:
  • Smoke: 0.1 micrometer – 1 micrometer
  • SPM: 1 micrometer- 100micro meter
  • Dust 100 micrometer to 200 micrometer

17. D

  • The main components of the photochemical smog result from the action of sunlight on unsaturated hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides produced by automobiles and factories
  • It is also called oxidising smog because it has high concentration of oxidising agent like ozone.
  • Certain plants such as Pinus, Juniparus, Quercus, Pyrus and Vitis can metabolise nitrogen oxide and therefore, their plantation could help in reducing effect of PCS.

18. D

  • E-waste or electronic waste, therefore, broadly describes loosely discarded, surplus, obsolete, broken, electrical or electronic devices.
  • The presence of elements like lead, mercury, arsenic, cadmium, selenium, hexavalent chromium, and flame retardants beyond threshold quantities make e-waste hazardous in nature.

19. D

  • Environmental impact assessment (EIA) has the following advantages:
  • It provides better understanding of the impacts of a project.
  • It identifies the issues that are contentious and helps in resolving those issues.
  • It ensures cooperation of the local people and transparency for the implementation of the project.
  • It helps in identifying alternative sites, designs etc.
  • It reduces disputes and confrontation.
  • It creates a sense of local ownership among the people residing in and around the project area.

20. D

  • Chlorine is used as a bleaching agent in the paper industry for whitening of the paper. It reacts with the organic content in the cellulose and produces organo-chlorine, which is a toxic compound and causes water-pollution. Bleaching with Oxygen or peroxide is a cleaner alternative to chlorine.
  • The most common sources of lead pollution in environment, are manufacturing plants and industries that make wide use of lead in the production of paint, batteries, bearings, solders, seals and a wide range of electronic appliances such as TV glass, TV tubes, ballasts, weights, foils, wires, crystal glass etc.
  • Burning of Sulphur in coal or heavy oil in thermal power plants release SO2 in the air.
  • SO2 combines with oxygen and water to form Sulphuric acid.
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