TEST 03: GEOGRAPHY

TEST 03: GEOGRAPHY

Syllabus:distribution of oceans and continents,minerals and rocks

Q1. Who amongst the following was the first to consider the possibility of Europe, Africa and America having been located side by side.

a. Alfred Wegener

b. Abraham Ortelius

c. Antonio Pellegrini

d. Edmond Hess

Q2. Polar fleeing force relates to:

a. Revolution of the Earth

b. Rotation of the earth

c. Gravitation

d. Tides

Q3. Which one of the following is not a minor plate?

a. Nazca

b. Philippines

c. Arabia

d. Antarctica

Q4. Consider the following Statements regarding CONTINENTAL DRIFT THEORY:

  1. It was put forward by Alfred Wegner.

  2. According to Wegener, all the continents formed a single continental mass called Panthalasa and mega ocean Pangea surrounded the same.

Identify the correct statements:

a. 1 only

b. 2 only

c. All are correct

d. None

Q5. Consider the following Statements in support of Continental Drift theory:

  1. Matching of Continents (Jig-Saw-Fit)

  2. Rocks of Same Age & type Across the Oceans

  3. Rich placer deposits of gold in the Ghana coast and the absolute absence of source rock in the region

Identify the correct statements which support theory:

a.  1 & 3 only

b. 1 & 2 only

c. All are correct

d. None

Q6. Consider the following Statements regarding Ocean Floor Configuration:

  1. The ocean floor may be segmented into major divisions – continental margins, deep-sea basins and mid-ocean ridges.

  2. Deep sea ridges include continental shelf, continental slope, continental rise and deep-oceanic trenches.

Identify the correct statements:

a.  1 only

b.  2 only

c. All are correct

d.  None

Q7. Consider the following Statements regarding PLATE TECTONICS:

  1. The theory of plate tectonics proposes that the earth’s lithosphere is divided into seven major and some minor plates.

  2. The slow movement of hot, softened mantle that lies below the rigid plates is the driving force behind the plate movement.

Identify the correct statements:

a. 1 only

b. 2 only

c. All are correct

d.  None

Q8. Consider the following Statements regarding location of minor plates:

                  Plate               Location

  1. Cocos plate       Between Central America and Pacific plate

  2. Nazca plate        South America and Pacific plate

  3. Caroline plate    Between the Philippine and pacific plate

  4. Fuji plate            North-east of Australia

Identify the correct statements:

a.  1,2 & 3 only

b. 1, 2 & 4 only

c. All are correct

d. None

Q9. Consider the following Statements regarding plate boundaries:

            Type of Plate Boundary          Key Feature

  1. Divergent Boundaries          spreading sites

  2. Convergent Boundaries       subduction zone.

  3. Transform Boundaries         Faults

Identify the correct statements:

a. 1 & 3 only

b. 2 only

c. All are correct

d. None

Q10. Which one of the following are the two main constituents of granite?

a. Iron and nickel

b. Silica and aluminium

c. Iron and silver

d. Iron Oxide and potassium

Q11. Which one of the following is the salient feature of metamorphic rocks?

a. Changeable

b. Crystalline

c. Quite

d. Foliation

Q12. Which one of the following is not a single element mineral?

a. Gold

b. Mica

c. Silver

d. Graphite

Q13. Which one of the following is the hardest mineral?

a. Topaz

b. Quartz

c. Diamond

d. Feldspar

Q14. Which one of the following is not a sedimentary rock?

a. Tillite

b. Breccia

c. Borax

d. Marble

Q15. Consider the following Statements regarding Igneous Rocks

  1. They are formed when magma cools and solidifies.

  2. Granite, gabbro, pegmatite, basalt, volcanic breccia and tuff are some of the examples of igneous rocks.

Identify the correct statements:

a. 1 only

b. 2 only

c. All are correct

d. None

Q16. Consider the following Statements regarding Sedimentary Rocks:

  1. In many sedimentary rocks, the layers of deposits retain their characteristics even after lithification.

  2. Examples include sandstone, limestone, coal etc.

Identify the correct statements:

a.1 only

b. 2 only

c. All are correct

d. None

Q17. Consider the following Statements regarding Metamorphic Rocks:

  1. These rocks form under the action of pressure, volume and temperature (PVT) changes.

  2. Gneissoid, granite, syenite, slate, schist, marble, quartzite etc. are some examples of metamorphic rocks.

Identify the correct statements:

a. 1 only

b. 2 only

c. All are correct

d. None

Q18. The process of converting unconsolidated sediments into sedimentary rocks requires which of the following

  1. Compaction

  2. Re-crystallisation

  3. Cementation

  4. Weathering

Select the correct answer using the codes given below

a. 1 and 2

b. 2 and 3

c. 1, 2 and 3

d. All of these

Q19. The process of metamorphism in some rocks grains or minerals get arranged in layers or lines. Such an arrangement of minerals or grains in metamorphic rocks is called

a. Foliation or lineation.

b. Banding

c. Both a and b

d. None of the above

Q20. Pyroxene consists of

a. calcium, aluminum

b. magnesium, iron

c. silica

d. all the above

1.B

  • Many scientists thought of this similarity and considered the possibility of the two Americas, Europe and Africa, to be once joined together. From the known records of the history of science, it was Abraham Ortelius, a Dutch map maker, who first proposed such a possibility as early as 1596.

2.B

  • Wegener suggested that the movement responsible for the drifting of the continents was caused by pole-fleeing force and tidal force. The polar-fleeing force relates to the rotation of the earth.

3.D

  • The major plates are as follows :
  • Antarctica and the surrounding oceanic plate
  • North American (with western Atlantic floor separated from the South American plate along the Caribbean islands) plate
  • South American (with western Atlantic floor separated from the North American plate along the Caribbean islands) plate
  • Pacific plate
  • India-Australia-New Zealand plate
  • Africa with the eastern Atlantic floor plate
  • Eurasia and the adjacent oceanic plate.
  • Some important minor plates are listed below:
  • Cocos plate : Between Central America and Pacific plate
  • Nazca plate : Between South America and Pacific plate
  • Arabian plate : Mostly the Saudi Arabian landmass
  • Philippine plate : Between the Asiatic and Pacific plate
  • Caroline plate : Between the Philippine and Indian plate (North of New Guinea)
  • Fuji plate : North-east of Australia.

4.A

  • Alfred Wegener—a German meteorologist who put forth a comprehensive argument in the form of “the continental drift theory” in 1912. This was regarding the distribution of the oceans and the continents. According to Wegener, all the continents formed a single continental mass, a mega ocean surrounded by the same. The super continent was named PANGAEA, which meant all earth. The mega-ocean was called PANTHALASSA, meaning all water

5.C

6.A.

  • The ocean floor may be segmented into three major divisions based on the depth as well as the forms of relief. These divisions are continental margins, deep-sea basins and mid-ocean ridges.
  • Continental Margins: These form the transition between continental shores and deep-sea basins. They include continental shelf, continental slope, continental rise and deep-oceanic trenches.

7.C

  • A tectonic plate (also called lithospheric plate) is a massive, irregularly-shaped slab of solid rock, generally composed of both continental and oceanic lithosphere.
  • The theory of plate tectonics proposes that the earth’s lithosphere is divided into seven major and some minor plates.
  • The slow movement of hot, softened mantle that lies below the rigid plates is the driving force behind the plate movement.

8.B

  • Some important minor plates are listed below:
  • Cocos plate : Between Central America and Pacific plate
  • Nazca plate : Between South America and Pacific plate
  • Arabian plate : Mostly the Saudi Arabian landmass
  • Philippine plate : Between the Asiatic and Pacific plate
  • Caroline plate : Between the Philippine and Indian plate (North of New Guinea)
  • Fuji plate : North-east of Australia.

9.C

  • Divergent Boundaries Where new crust is generated as the plates pull away from each other. The sites where the plates move away from each other are called spreading sites.
  • Convergent Boundaries
  • Where the crust is destroyed as one plate dived under another. The location where sinking of a plate occurs is called a subduction zone.
  • Transform Boundaries
  • Where the crust is neither produced nor destroyed as the plates slide horizontally past each other. Transform faults are the planes of separation generally perpendicular to the midoceanic ridges.

10.B

  • Quartz: It is one of the most important components of sand and granite. It consists of silica. It is a hard mineral virtually insoluble in water. It is white or colourless and used in radio and radar.
  • It is one of the most important components of granite.

11. A

  • Metamorphic Rocks: The word metamorphic means ‘change of form’. These rocks form under the action of pressure, volume and temperature (PVT) changes.
  • Metamorphism occurs when rocks are forced down to lower levels by tectonic processes or when molten magma rising through the crust comes in contact with the crustal rocks or the underlying rocks are subjected to great amounts of pressure by overlying rocks.

12.C

  • Mica: It comprises of potassium, aluminium, magnesium, iron, silica etc. It forms 4 per cent of the earth’s crust. It is commonly found in igneous and metamorphic rocks. It is used in electrical instruments.

13.C

14.D

15.C

  • Igneous Rocks:  As igneous rocks form out of magma and lava from the interior of the earth, they are known as primary rocks.Granite, gabbro, pegmatite, basalt, volcanic breccia and tuff are some of the examples of igneous rocks.

16.C

  • Sedimentary Rocks: The word ‘sedimentary’ is derived from the Latin word sedimentum, which means settling. Rocks (igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic) of the earth’s surface are exposed to denudational agents, and are broken up into various sizes of fragments. Such fragments are transported by different exogenous agencies and deposited. These deposits through compaction turn into rocks. This process is called lithification. In many sedimentary rocks, the layers of deposits retain their characteristics even after lithification. Hence, we see a number of layers of varying thickness in sedimentary rocks like sandstone, shale etc.

17. C

  • Metamorphism occurs when rocks are forced down to lower levels by tectonic processes or when molten magma rising through the crust comes in contact with the crustal rocks or the underlying rocks are subjected to great amounts of pressure by overlying rocks.
  • Metamorphism is a process by which already consolidated rocks undergo recrystallisation and reorganisation of materials within original rocks.

18.C

  • The process, by which loose sediment is hardened to rock are collectively called Lithification.
  • Once this happens, continued erosion and re-transport of the sediments become much more difficult. The process, which involves in it are compaction, re-crystallization and cementation.

19.A

  • The process of metamorphism in some rocks grains or minerals get arranged in layers or lines. Such an arrangement of minerals or grains in metamorphic rocks is called foliation or lineation.
  • Sometimes minerals or materials of different groups are arranged into alternating thin to thick layers appearing in light and dark shades. Such a structure in metamorphic rocks is called banding and rocks displaying banding are called banded rocks.

20.D

  • Pyroxene consists of calcium, aluminum, magnesium, iron and silica. Pyroxene forms
  • 10 per cent of the earth’s crust. It is commonly found in meteorites. It is in green or black colour.
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