TEST 04: ENVIRONMENT AND ECOLOGY

1.Which of the below mentioned is an example of In-situ conservation method?

(A) Zoological parks

(B) Botanical gardens

(C) National Parks

(D) Wildlife safari parks

2. Consider the following statements:

  1. India has more National Parks than Wildlife Sanctuaries

  2. Grazing of livestock can be permitted inside a National Park but not inside a sanctuary

  3. A Wildlife sanctuary can be upgraded to National Park for providing more protection to Wildlife

 Which of the statements given above is/are Correct?

(A) 1 and 3

(B) 2 only

(C) 1 only

(D) 1, 2 and 3

3. Consider the following statements regarding Wetlands:

    1. Ecological diversity and productivity are low in wetlands

    2. They are useful for flood control, groundwater recharge, and climate change mitigation

    3. In India, the total geographical area of inland wetlands is larger than that of coastal wetlands

Which of the statements given above is/are Correct?

(A) 1 and 3

(B) 2 only

(C) 2 and 3 only

(D) 1, 2 and 3

4. Consider the following wetlands in India:

  1. Tsomoriri

  2. Chilka Lake

  3. Pong Dam

  4. Bhitarkanika Mangroves

Which of the above-mentioned wetlands are included in Ramsar sites under Ramsar Convention?

(A) 1 and 4

(B) 2 and 3 only

(C) 1, 3 and 4

(D) 1, 2,3 and 4

5.Consider the following pair based on National Parks and major animal protected in the site:

  1. Kaziranga Elephant

  2. Ranthambhore – Lion

  3. Periyar – Tiger

Which of the above-mentioned pairs are correctly matched?

(A) 1, 2 and 3

(B) 3 only

(C) 2 only

(D) None of the Above

6. Consider the following National Parks in India:

  1. Rajaji National Park

  2. Kaziranga National Park

  3. Panna National Park

  4. Simlipal National Park

Which of the above National Parks are declared as Tiger Reserve?

(A) 1, 2 and 3

(B) 1, 3 and 4

(C) 2 and 3

(D) 1, 2, 3 and 4

7. Match the following:

IUCN category                    Definition

(a) Critically endangered 1. High risk of extinction in the wild

(b) Endangered                 2. Likely to become endangered in near future

(c) Vulnerable                    3. Extremely high risk of extinction in the wild

(d) Near threatened           4. High risk of endangerment in the wild

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(A) a – 4, b – 3, c – 1, d – 2

(B) a – 1, b – 2, c – 3, d – 4

(C) a – 4, b – 3, c- 2, d – 1

(D) a – 3, b – 1, c – 4, d – 2

8. Which of the following process would explain ozone losses in the atmosphere? When ozone is exposed to

  1. CFCs and UV radiation

  2. Long winter circumpolar winds to form ice crystals

  3. Single oxygen atom and chlorine monoxide

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(A) 1, 2 and 3

(B) 2 and 3

(C) 1 and 2 only

(D) 1 and 3

9. Consider the following statements regarding Carbon Forcings:

  1. Climate forcings are factors in the climate system that either increase or decrease the effects of the climate system.

  2. Negative forcings such as excess greenhouse gases warm the earth.

  3. Positive forcings such as the effects of most aerosols and volcanic eruptions cool the earth.

Which of the mentioned statements is/are correct?

(A) 1 only

(B) 1 and 2 only

(C) 2 and 3 only

(D) 1, 2 and 3

10. What are the reasons for the ozone hole predominant at the Antarctic?

  1. The Antarctic stratosphere is much colder.

  2. Antarctic vortex enhances the favourable conditions for the depletion of ozone.

Which of the above-mentioned statements is/are correct?

(A) 1 only

(B) 2 only

(C) Both 1 and 2

(D) Neither 1 nor 2

11. Match the following

(a) Genetic diversity        1. Combination of communities of living things with the physical environment

(b) Species diversity         2.  Diversity within species

(c) Ecological diversity  3. Different species that are represented in a given community

Select the correct answer using the following Code:

(A) a – 1, b – 2, c – 3

(B) a – 1, b – 3, c – 2

(C) a – 2, b – 3, c – 1

(D) a – 3, b – 2, c – 1

12. Consider the following statements

  1. Species diversity decreases as we move away from the equator towards the poles

  2. Species diversity decreases as we move higher altitude in mountain ecosystem

Which of the above-mentioned statements is/are Correct?

(A) 1 only

(B) 2 only

(C) Both 1 and 2

(D) Neither 1 nor 2

13. Consider the following:

  1. Habitat loss and fragmentation

  2. Over-exploitation

  3. Alien species invasions

  4. Co-extinctions

Which of the above-mentioned factors are responsible for the loss of biodiversity?

(A) 1 and 3 only

(B) 2 only

(C) 1, 3 and 4

(D) 1, 2, 3 and 4

14. Consider the following Statements regarding Keibul lamjao National Park :

  1. It is an integral part of Loktak lake and also the only floating National Park in the world

  2. The animal species conserved here is the endangered Brow-antlered deer or Sangai

  3. The national park is characterized by many floating decomposed plant materials locally called phumdis

 Which of the statements given above is/are Correct?

(A) 1 only

(B) 2 and 3 only

(C) 1 and 3

(D) 1, 2 and 3

15. Consider the following statements with regards to Indian Biodiversity:

  1. India is composed of two realms, one is Himalayan region and other sub-continent regions

  2. India has 5 different biomes including Coniferous and Alpine meadows Biomes

  3. Further, Indian Biodiversity is classified into 10 Bio-geographic zones and 25 Bio-geographic provinces

Which of the above-mentioned statements is/are correct?

(A) 1, 2 and 3

(B) 1 only

(C) 1 and 3

(D) 3 only

16. Consider the following:

  1. Continental drifting

  2. Hunting

  3. Climate change

  4. Invasion of new species

Which of the above mentioned are the reasons for Species extinction?

(A) 1 and 4 only

(B) 1, 3 and 4

(C) 2, 3 and 4

(D) 1, 2, 3 and 4

17. Consider the statements given:

  1. Assertion: In India, the majority of seagrass are found in Southeast coast and lagoons of Lakshadweep

  2. Reason: It grows abundantly in water with high salinity and clear surface

Choose the correct answer using the code given below:

(A) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.

(B) Both A and R are true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A.

(C) A is true but R is false.

(D) A is false but R is true.

18. What are the major reasons for Birds migration?

  1. To overcome adverse climatic conditions

  2. To manage food and water shortage

  3. For breeding

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(A) 1 and 2 only

(B) 2 and 3 only

(C) 1 and 3 only

(D) 1, 2 and 3

19. Consider the following statement regarding Olive Ridley turtles:

  1. It is primarily found in cold Atlantic and Arctic oceans

  2. Under IUCN, it is listed under critically endangered species

 Which of the above-mentioned statements is/are correct?

(A) 1 only

(B) 2 only

(C) Both 1 and 2

(D) Neither 1 nor 2

20. Consider the following:

  1. Fishes

  2. Amphibians

  3. Reptiles

  4. Aves

Which of the above mentioned are cold-blooded animals?

(A) 1, 2 and 3

(B) 2, 3 and 4

(C) 1, 2 and 4

(D) 1, 2, 3 and 4

ANSWERS

1.C

  • In-situ conservation, the conservation of species in their natural habitats, is considered the most appropriate way of conserving biodiversity. Conserving the areas where populations of species exist naturally is an underlying condition for the conservation of biodiversity. That’s why protected areas form a central element of any national strategy to conserve biodiversity.

2. A

  • No grazing of any [livestock13] shall be permitted in a National Park.

3. C

4. D

  • List of Ramsar Sites in India – Asthamudi Wetland, Bhitarkanika Mangroves, Bhoj Wetlands, Chandertal Wetland, Chilka Lake, Deepor Beel, East Calcutta Wetlands, Harike Lake Punjab, Hokera Wetland Jammu and Kashmir, Kanjli Lake Punjab, Keoladeo Ghana NP Rajasthan, Kolleru Lake Andhra Pradesh, Loktak Lake Manipur, Nalsarovar Bird Sanctuary Gujarat, Point Calimere Tamil Nadu, Pong Dam Lake Himachal Pradesh, Renuka Wetland Himachal Pradesh, Ropar Lake Punjab Rudrasagar Lake Tripura, Sambhar Lake Rajasthan, Sasthamkotta Lake Kerala, Surinsar-Mansar Lakes Jammu and Kashmir, Tsomoriri Lake Jammu and Kashmir, Vembanad Kol Wetland Kerala, Upper Ganga River (Brijghat to Narora Stretch) Uttar Pradesh, Wular Lake Jammu & Kashmir

5. D

  • Kaziranga – Rhino, Ranthambhore – Tiger, Periyar – Elephant

6. D

7. D

8. D

9. A

  • Climate “forcing’s” are factors in the climate system that either increase or decrease the effects to the climate system. Positive forcing’s such as excess greenhouse gases warm the earth while negative forcing’s, such as the effects of most aerosols and volcanic eruptions, actually cool the earth.

10. C

  • The Antarctic stratosphere is much colder. The low temperature enables the formation of Polar stratospheric Clouds (PSCs ), below 20 km Ozone absorbs sunlight, causing the characteristic increase in temperature with increase in altitude) stratosphere. If ozone is being depleted, the air becomes cooler, further adding to the favorable conditions for the formation of PSCs and stabilization of the vortex.
  • The vortex is a ring of rapidly circulating air that confines the ozone depletion in the Antarctic region. The longevity of the Antarctic vortex is another factor, enhancing favourable conditions for the depletion of ozone.

11. C

12. A

  • Species diversity decreases as we move towards the poles, because: (i) Temperature decreases and conditions become harsh. (ii) Both the amount and intensity of solar radiation decreases. (iii) Vegetation decreases. (iv) Less resources available to support species. Speciation is generally a function of time and environmental stability, so if conditions are too harsh, it is difficult for the species to survive and adapt. This results in decrease in biodiversity towards the poles.

13. D

14. D

  • Keibul Lamjao is probably the world’s only ‘floating’ sanctuary that comprises 40 sq. km. of wetland overgrown with 1.5 m. deep floating vegetation (called phumdi). The fauna in the park is also rare and unique. The area is home to the endangered brow-antlered deer or sangai.

15. A

  • India Represents: Two realms – the Himalayan region represented by Palearctic Realm and the rest of the sub-continent represented by Malayan Realm. The five biomes of India are: 1) Tropical Humid Forests 2) Tropical Dry or Deciduous Forests (including Monsoon Forests 3) Warm deserts and semi-deserts 4) Coniferous forests and 5) Alpine meadows. Indian represents Ten Bio-geographic Zones and Twenty five Bio-geographic provinces

16. D

  • Natural causes: continent drifting, climate change, tectonic activity and increased volcanic activity. The late Ordovician global glaciations (439,, Mya). The late Cretaceous extinction assumed to be associated with an extra-terrestrial impact. Artificial Extinction: direct causes – such as hunting, collection or capture and persecution Indirect causes – such as habitat loss, modification and fragmentation and the introduction of invasive species

17. A

18. D

19. D

  • The olive ridley sea turtle also known as Lepidochelys olivacea, or the Pacific ridley sea turtle, is a medium-sized sea turtle found in warm and tropical waters, primarily in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. They can also be found in warm waters of the Atlantic Ocean. According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), the olive ridley turtle is classified as Vulnerable. It is also listed in Appendix I of CITES.

20. A

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