TEST 04:GEOGRAPHY

TEST 04:GEOGRAPHY

Syllabus:Geomorphic processes

Q1. Which one of the following processes is a gradational process?

a. Deposition

b. Diastrophism

c. Volcanism

d. Erosion

Q2. Which one of the following materials is affected by hydration process?

a. Granite

b. Clay

c. Quartz

d. Salts

Q3.  Debris avalanche can be included in the category of:

a. Landslides

b. Slow flow mass movements

c. Rapid flow mass movements

d.Subsidence

Q4. Which of the following are reasons for uneven surface of earth?

  1. Earth moves vertically and horizontally.

  2. Earth’s crust is dynamic.

  3. Earth is continuously subjected to external forces originating within the earth’s atmosphere

Select the correct answer from the following codes

a. only 1

b. 1 and 3 only

c. 2 and 3 only

d. 1,2 and 3

Q5. Consider the following statements

  1. Earth crust moved a bit faster in the past than the rate at which it is moving now.

  2. The endogenic forces are mainly land wearing forces and the exogenic processes are mainly land building forces.

Select the correct statements using following codes

a. Only 1

b. Only 2

c. Both 1 and 2

d. Neither 1 nor 2

Q6. Which of the following force contribute to endogenic geomorphic processes?

  1. Primordial heat from the origin of the earth

  2. Radioactivity

  3. Rotational and tidal friction

Select the correct statements using following codes

a. Only 1

b. Only 1 and 3

c. Only 1 and 2

d. 1, 2 and 3

Q7. Consider the following statements

  1. All processes that elevate earth’s crust come under diastrophism

  2. Earthquakes involving local relatively minor movements also come under diastrophism

Select the correct statements using following codes

a. Only 1

b. Only 2

c. Both 1 and 2

d. Neither 1 nor 2

Q8. Which of the following is true about exogenic geomorphic forces?

  1. Exogenic geomorphic processes vary from region to region.

  2. Besides the gravitational stress earth materials become subjected to molecular stresses

Select the correct answer from the following codes

a. Only 1

b. Only 2

c. Both 1 and 2

d. Neither 1 nor 2

Q9. Which of the following are true about weathering?

  1. Expansion of salts due to hydration and crystallization is physical weathering

  2. Decay and solubility of some elements by Decaying plant and animal matter is chemical weathering.

Select the correct answer from the following codes

a. Only 1

b. Only 2

c. Both 1 and 2

d. Neither 1 nor 2

Q10. Consider the following statements

  1. Weathering is an in-situ process

  2. Magnitude and depth of weathering differs from climate to climate.

Select the correct answer from the following codes

a. Only 1

b. Only 2

c. Both 1 and 2

d. Neither 1 nor 2

Q11. Which of the following is/are chemical weathering?

  1. Solution.

  2. Carbonation.

  3. Frost weathering.

Select the correct answer from the following

a. Only 3

b. Only 2 and 3

c. Only 1 and2

d. 1,2 and 3

Q12.  Which of the following is/are not Biological weathering?

  1. Cultivation.

  2. Burrowing by organism.

  3. Decaying of plants.

Select the correct answer from the following codes

a. Only 1

b. Only 1 and 2

c. Only 2 and 3

d. None

Q13.  Consider the following statements

  1. Biomes and biodiversity depend upon the depth of weathering.

  2. Weathering influences enrichment of certain valuable ores.

Select the correct answer from the following codes

a. Only 1

b. Only 2

c. Both 1 and 2

d. Neither 1 nor 2

Q14. Consider the following statements regarding the mass movement of rock debris.

  1. Weathering is pre-requisite for mass movement.

  2. Mass movement are aided by erosion.

Select the correct answer from the following codes

a. Only 1

b. Only 2

c. Both 1 and 2

d. Neither 1 nor 2

Q15. Which of the following is/are characteristics of soil?

  1. Soil characteristics fluctuate with season

  2. Soil is result of decay

  3. Amount of organic matter in soil changed with reason.

Select the correct answer from the following codes

a. Only 1

b. Only 1 and 2

c. Only 2 and 3

d. 1,2 and 3

Q16. Consider the following statements

  1. Parent material is passive control factor in soil formation.

  2. Young soils show strong links with parent rock than matured soils.

Select the correct answer from the following codes

a. Only 1

b. Only 2

c. Both 1 and 2

d. Neither 1 nor 2

Q17. Consider the following statements

  1. Humus accumulates more in sub-arctic and tundra climates than in tropical climates.

  2. Earthworms feed on soil and changes its texture and chemistry of soil.

Select the correct answer from the following codes

a. Only 1

b. Only 2

c. Both 1 and 2

d. Neither 1 nor 2

Q18. Consider the following statements

  1. Weathering of rocks and deposits helps in the enrichment and concentrations of certain valuable ores of iron, manganese, aluminium, copper etc., which are of great importance for the national economy

  2. Weathering is an important process in the formation of soils.

Select the correct answer from the following codes

a. Only 1

b. Only 2

c. Both 1 and 2

d. Neither 1 nor 2

Q19. The rapid movements includes

  1. Earth flow

  2. Mud flow

  3. Debris avalanche

  4. Slump

Select the correct answer from the following codes

a. 1 and 2

b. 2 and 4

c. 1,2 and 3

d. 1,2,3 and 4

Q20. Which of following are physical weathering processes:

  1. Exfoliation

  2. Freezing, Thawing and Frost Wedging

  3. Temperature Changes and Expansion

  4. Salt Weathering

Identify the correct statements:

a. 1,2 & 3 only

b. 2 & 4 only

c. All are correct

d. None

ANSWERS

1. D

  • The actions of exogenic forces result in wearing down (degradation) of relief/elevations and filling up (aggradation) of basins/depressions, on the earth’s surface. The phenomenon of wearing down of relief variations of the surface of the earth through erosion is known as gradation.

2.B

  • Hydration is the chemical addition of water. Minerals take up water and expand; this expansion causes an increase in the volume of the material itself or rock.
  • Many clay minerals swell and contract during wetting and drying and a repetition of this process results in cracking of overlying materials.

3.C

  • Rapid Movements are mostly prevalent in humid climatic regions and occur over gentle to steep slopes.
  • Debris avalanche, which is more characteristic of humid regions with or without vegetation cover and occurs in narrow tracks on steep slopes. This debris avalanche can be much faster than the mudflow. Debris avalanche is similar to snow avalanche.

4.D

  • First of all, the earth’s crust is dynamic.  It moved a bit faster in the past than the rate at which it is moving now. The internal forces are still active though with different intensities. That means, the earth’s surface is being continuously subjected to by external forces originating within the earth’s atmosphere and by internal forces from within the earth.

5.A

  • The endogenic forces are mainly land building forces and the exogenic processes are mainly land wearing forces. 

6.D

  • ENDOGENIC PROCESSES
  • The energy emanating from within the earth is the main force behind endogenic geomorphic processes. This energy is mostly generated by radioactivity, rotational and tidal friction and primordial heat from the origin of the earth. This energy due to geothermal gradients and heat flow from within induces diastrophism and volcanism in the lithosphere. Due to variations in geothermal gradients and heat flow from within, crustal thickness and strength, the action of endogenic forces are not uniform and hence the tectonically controlled original crustal surface is uneven

7.C

  • All processes that move, elevate or build up portions of the earth’s crust come under diastrophism.
  • They include: (i) orogenic processes involving mountain building through severe folding and affecting long and narrow belts of the earth’s crust;
  • (ii) Epeirogenic processes involving uplift or warping of large parts of the earth’s crust; (iii) earthquakes involving local relatively minor movements;
  • (iv) Plate tectonics involving horizontal movements of crustal plates.

8.C

  • The exogenic processes derive their energy from atmosphere determined by the ultimate energy from the sun and also the gradients created by tectonic factors.
  • Besides the gravitational stress earth materials become subjected to molecular stresses that may be caused by a number of factors amongst which temperature changes, crystallisation and melting are the most common.

9.A

  • Expansion of salts due to hydration and crystallisation is physical weathering. Decay and solubility of some elements by Decaying plant and animal matter is biological weathering.

10.C

  • As very little or no motion of materials takes place in weathering it is an in-situ or on site process. Not only weathering processes differ from climate to climate, but also the Depth of weathering mantle.

11.C

  • Solution, carbonation hydration, oxidation and reduction are chemical weathering. Physical weathering are unloading and expansion, Temperature changes and expansion, Freezing, Thawing and frost wedging, salt weathering.

12.D

  • Biological weathering are borrowing and wedging by organisms, ploughing and cultivating soils, Decaying plant and animal matter help in production of humie, carbonic and other acids which enhance decay and solubility of elements causing weathering.

13.C

  • Biomes and biodiversity is basically a result of forests and forests depend upon the depth of weathering mantles. Weathering of rocks and deposits helps in enrichment and concentrations of certain valuable ores of iron, manganese, aluminium, copper etc.

14.D

  • Weathering is not a pre requisite for mass movement though it aids mass movement, Mass movement are aided by gravity and no geomorphic agent like running water, glaciers, wind, waves and currents participate in the process of mass movements. This shows that mass movement do not come under erosion though there is shift of materials from one place to another.

15.D

  • Soil is a result of decay, it is also medium for growth. Biological activity is slowed or stopped if the soil becomes too cold or too dry. Organic matter increases when leaves fall or grasses die. The soil chemistry, the amount of organic matter the soil flora and fauna, the temperature and the moisture, all change with the seasons.

16.B

  • Parent materials can be any in situ or on site weathered rock debris .  when soils are very young and have not matured these show strong links with the type of parent rock.

17.C

  • In humid tropical and equatorial climates, bacterial growth and action is intense and dead vegetation is rapidly oxidized leaving very low humus content in the soil. With un-decomposed organic matter because of low bacterial activity, layers of peat develop in sub-arctic and tundra climates. In case of earthworms, as they feed on soil, the texture and chemistry of soil that comes out of their body changes.

18.C

  • Weathering of rocks and deposits helps in the enrichment and concentrations of certain valuable ores of iron, manganese, aluminium, copper etc., which are of great importance for the national economy. Weathering is an important process in the formation of soils.

19.C

20.C

 

 

 

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