TEST 05: ENVIRONMENT AND ECOLOGY

1.Consider the statements regarding Bio-sequestration:

  1. Bio-sequestration is an artificial process that captures and stores the atmospheric greenhouse gas carbon dioxide by biological processes

  2. Bio-sequestration is a natural process responsible for the formation of the extensive coal and oil deposits which are now being burned

 Which of the statements given above is/are Correct?

(A) 1 only

(B) 2 only

(C) Both 1 and 2

(D) Neither 1 nor 2

2. Consider the following government’s missions on Climate Change

  1. National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency

  2. National Mission on Sustainable Habitats

  3. National Mission for a Green India

  4. National Mission on Strategic Knowledge on Climate Change

 Which of the above-mentioned missions is/are included in National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC)?

(A) 1, 2 and 3

(B) 2, 3 and 4

(C) 1, 2, 3 and 4

(D) None of the Above

3. Which of the following statements about National Green Tribunal is/are correct?

  1. It is a specialized body equipped with the necessary expertise to handle environmental disputes involving multidisciplinary issues

  2. The Tribunal shall not be bound by the procedure laid down under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908

  3. It is guided by the principle of Natural Justice

 Select the correct answer using the following Code:

(A) 1 and 2

(B) 2 and 3

(C) 3 only

(D) 1, 2 and 3

4. Which one among the following statements correctly defines the term Bio-fortification?

(A) Enrichment of the nutrient quality of the soil using biological agents

(B) Breeding crops to increase their nutritional values

(C) An increase of organo-metallic compounds in the organism through the energy flow in an ecosystem

(D) Adoption of genetic variable plants for breeding of high yielding varieties

5. Consider the following statements:

  1. A carbon tax is a tax on the carbon content of fuels (principally coal, oil, and natural gas) that generate CO2 emissions when burned

  2. Carbon subsidies are measures that keep prices for consumers below market levels or for producers above market levels or reduce costs for consumers and producers

Which of the above-mentioned statements given above is/are NOT correct?

(A) 1 only

(B) 2 only

(C) Both 1 and 2

(D) Neither 1 nor 2

6. Consider the following with respect to carbon sequestration:

  1. Ocean

  2. Forest

  3. Depleted oil reserves

  4. Mines

Which of the above-mentioned act as carbon sinks?

(A) 1 and 2 only

(B) 1, 2 and 3

(C) 2 only

(D) 1, 2, 3 and 4

7. Consider the following statements with respect to per-capita carbon emissions:

  1. The USA has the highest per capita emission across the globe

  2. India s per capita emission is below than of the global average

 Which of the above-mentioned statement is/are correct?

(A) 1 only

(B) 2 only

(C) Both 1 and 2

(D) Neither 1 nor 2

8. Consider the following statements with respect to Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF):

  1. It was established under the Paris climate agreement

  2. The fund is used to finance projects related to adaptation and technology transfers

Which of the above-mentioned statements is/are correct?

(A) 1 only

(B) 2 only

(C) Both 1 and 2

(D) Neither 1 nor 2

9. Consider the following statements with respect to National Bio Energy mission:

  1. It aims at improving energy efficiency in traditional biomass consuming industries

  2. It seeks to develop a bio-energy city project

  3. It provides logistics support to biomass processing units

  4. It will also propose a GIS-based National Biomass Resource Atlas to map potential biomass regions in the country

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(A) 1, 2, 3 and 4

(B) 2, 3 and 4

(C) 1 and 2

(D) 1 and 4

10. Sequestrated CO2 can be used in which of the below-mentioned industries?

  1. Horticulture

  2. Dry ice production

  3. Plastic

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(A) 1 only

(B) 1 and 2

(C) 2 and 3

(D) 1, 2 and 3

11. Which among the following multilateral environment agreements (MEAs) is NOT correctly paired with the respective issue it deals with?

(A) Montreal Protocol of 1987 – Regulation in controlling usage of Green House Gases

(B) Bonn Convention of 1979 – The conservation of Migratory Species.

(C) Basel Convention of 1989 – Regulation of Trans-boundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal

(D) Rotterdam Convention of 1998 – Consensual International Trade in certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides.

12. Which of the following criteria have to be met in order to qualify as a biodiversity hotspot on the world hotspots map?

  1. The region must contain at least 0.5 percent or 1500 species of vascular plants as endemic species

  2. The region has to have lost at least 70 percent of its primary vegetation

Select the correct answer using the following Code:

(A) 1 only

(B) 2 only

(C) Both 1 and 2

(D) Neither 1 nor 2

13. Consider the following Biosphere reserves in India:

  1. Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve

  2. Panchmahari Biosphere Reserve

  3. Manas National Park

  4. Gulf of Mannar

Which of the above mentioned are included in UNESCO s world network of Biosphere reserve?

(A) 1, 2 and 3

(B) 2 and 3 only

(C) 1, 2 and 4

(D) 1, 2, 3 and 4

14. Consider the following statements with respect to Wild Life Protection Act, 1972:

  1. The act has been adopted by all states including Jammu and Kashmir

  2. It provides protection of hunting rights of the Tribes in Andaman and Nicobar Islands

  3. It also sets up National Tiger Conservation Authority

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(A) 1 only

(B) 1 and 2

(C) 2 and 3

(D) 1, 2 and 3

15. Consider the following statements about Lighting a billion lives (LABL):

  1. It is a global initiative started by UNFCCC

  2. The initiative enables energy poor communities to transition from traditional and inefficient energy sources to modern, more efficient and sustainable energy solutions

Which of the above-mentioned statements is/are correct?

(A) 1 only

(B) 2 only

(C) Both 1 and 2

(D) Neither 1 nor 2

16. Consider the following statements with respect to TRAFFIC The Wildlife Trade Monitoring Network:

  1. It is a joint conservation programme of WWF and IUCN

  2. Its aim is to ensure that trade in wild plants and animals is not a threat to the conservation of nature

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(A) 1 only

(B) 2 only

(C) Both 1 and 2

(D) Neither 1 nor 2

17. Which of the below mentioned are Priority areas of IUCN:

  1. Bio-diversity

  2. Organic Farming

  3. Sustainable Energy

  4. Green Economy

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(A) 1 and 2

(B) 1, 2 and 3

(C) 1, 3 and 4

(D) 2 and 3

18. Consider the following statements regarding Comprehensive Environmental Pollution Index (CEPI):

  1. It is a rational number to characterize the environmental quality at a given location

  2. If the CEPI score is less than 60 on a scale of 0 to 100 then it is normal

Which of the above-mentioned statements is/are correct?

(A) 1 only

(B) 2 only

(C) Both 1 and 2

(D) Neither 1 nor 2

19. Which of the following are the key features of National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA)?

  1. River basin is the unit of planning and management

  2. It spearheads the river conservation efforts at the national level

  3. One of the Chief Ministers of the States through which the Ganga flows becomes the Chairman of NGRBA on a rotation basis

Select the correct Answer using the code given below:

(A) 1 and 2 only

(B) 2 and 3 only

(C) 1 and 3 only

(D) 1,2 and 3

20. Consider the following statements regarding Biological diversity which helps in maintaining the health of ecosystem:

  1. Natural vegetation cover helps in maintaining hydrological cycles, regulating and stabilizing water run-off and acting as a buffer against extreme events such as floods and droughts.

  2. Wetlands and forests act as water purifying systems, while mangroves trap silt thereby reducing impacts on marine ecosystems.

  3. Biological diversity helps in the conservation of soil and retention of moisture and nutrients.

Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?

(A) Only 1

(B) 1 and 2

(C) 2 and 3

(D) All of the above

Answers

1. A

2. C

  • National Solar Mission, National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency, National Mission on Sustainable Habitat, National Water Mission, National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem, National Mission for a “Green India”, National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture, National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change.

3. D

4. B

  • Biofortification is the process by which the nutritional quality of food crops is improved through agronomic practices, conventional plant breeding, or modern biotechnology.

5. D

6. D

  • Carbon sequestration may be carried out by pumping. carbon into ‘carbon sinks’ – an area that absorbs carbon.
  • Natural sinks – Oceans, forests, soil etc.
  • Artificial sinks – Depleted oil reserves, unmineable mines, etc.

7. C

8. B

  • The Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF) was established under the Convention in 2001 to finance projects relating to: adaptation; technology transfer and capacity building; energy, transport, industry, agriculture, forestry and waste management; and economic diversification. This fund should complement other funding mechanisms for the implementation of the Convention.

9. A

10. D

11. A

  • Montreal Protocol of 1987 is to regulate the depletion of Ozone layer

12. C

  • To qualify as a biodiversity hotspot, a region must meet two strict criteria: Contain at least 1,500 species of vascular plants (> 0.5 percent of the world’s total) as endemics (species found nowhere else on Earth). Have lost at least 70 percent of its original habitat.

13. C

14. C

  • Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 (with Amendment Acts of 2003 and 2006): The act provides for the protection of wild animals, birds and plants and matters connected with them, with a view to ensure the ecological and environmental security of India.
  • Extends to the whole of India, except the State of Jammu and Kashmir which has its own wildlife act It provides for prohibition on use of animal traps except under certain circumstances
  • It provides for protection of hunting rights of the Scheduled Tribes in Andaman and Nicobar Islands Has provisions for the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) It has six schedules which give varying degrees of protection Species listed in Schedule I and part II of Schedule II get absolute protection — offences under these are prescribed the highest penalties Species listed in Schedule III and Schedule IV are also protected, but the penalties are much lower Schedule V includes the animals which may be hunted The plants in Schedule VI are prohibited from cultivation and planting
  • The act constitutes a National Board for Wildlife that provides guidelines for framing policies and advising Central and State Government on promotion of wildlife conservation and controlling poaching and illegal trade of wildlife and its products; Making recommendations for setting up and managing national parks, sanctuaries and other protected areas; and Suggesting measures for improvement of wildlife conservation.
  • It also sets up National Tiger Conservation Authority. The acts sets up various provisions related to trade and penalties for hunting the animals in wild.

15. B

  • Lighting a Billion Lives is a global initiative to facilitate clean energy access and the delivery of last mile energy services for basic and productive use. The initiative enables energy poor communities to transition from traditional and inefficient energy sources to modern, more efficient and sustainable energy solutions.
  • Operating through an entrepreneurial model of energy service delivery, Lighting a Billion Lives accelerates market development for clean energy technologies through knowledge sharing, capacity building and market seeding. LaBL is a campaign by TERI that promotes the use of solar lanterns specially designed and manufactured on a decentralized basis.

16. C

17. C

  • Priority Areas of IUCN 1. Biodiversity 2. Climate change 3. Sustainable energy 4. Human well-being 5. Green economy

18. C

  • Comprehensive Environmental Pollution Index (CEPI) is a rational number to characterize the environmental quality at a given location following the algorithm of, source, pathway,
  • receptor and various parameters like pollutant concentration, impact on human health and level of exposure have been taken into consideration for the calculation of pollution indices for air, water and land. Classification of industrial ‘clusters: >70 critically polluted, 60-70 severely polluted and less than 60 normal

19. A

20. D

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