Urban development

Lakes in bangalore: it’s issues and solutions

 lake 1

The topographic setting of the city has radial slopes towards east and west with a smooth ridge running north to south; rainfall over the ridge area gets divided and flows east or west into the three gentle slopes and valleys of Koramangala–Challagatta, Hebbal and Vrishabavathi. These naturally undulating terrain of hills and valleys, lends itself perfectly to the development of lakes that can capture and store rainwater. Small streams are formed by each valley starting with the ridge at the top. A series of shallow tanks varying in size are developed. The gentle topography has also good potential of ground water development.

Current status

In the 1960s the number of tanks and lakes was 280 and less than 80 in 1993. The status of lakes in Bangalore:

lake 2

Lake management

  1. Historically lakes in the Bangalore region were managed by a plethora of government agencies such as the Forest Department, Minor Irrigation Department, etc.
  2. A Public Interest Litigation was also filed in July 1985 and the High Court duly directed the Government of Karnataka to take immediate steps
  3. The Government of Karnataka set up the Lake Development Authority (LDA) in July 2002 as a registered society, as a non-profit organization and a para–statal body with a mandate of working solely for the regeneration and conservation of lakes in and around Bangalore city within BMRDA jurisdiction in the first instance, would be extended to other parts of Karnataka subsequently.
  4. The LDA initially identified 2,789 large, medium and small lakes within Bangalore Metropolitan Regional Development Authority (BMRDA) limits including 608 within the limits of Bangalore Development Authority (BDA) to take remedial and restoration measures. Several organizations and funding agencies have been involved in restoration of lakes in Bangalore under Indo–Norwegian Environment Programme (INEP), The National Lake Conservation Programme (NLCP) etc.
  5. In 2004, the LDA began a process of “public-private participation” where private companies bid for the lakes to “develop and maintain” them for the next 15 years
  6. Impact–The social damage caused due to privatization, as reported by a researcher, are:
  • There is dichotomy in the functions allocated by the vesting of powers with LDA to maintain only the water body and some part of the shore line while the shore and lands adjoining the lakes, which also play an important role in the overall maintenance and health of lakes, are with district bodies. This state of affairs creates a complex situation of not addressing the lake as a continuum with land.
  • The lakes are being developed as stand alone water bodies without a linkage to other lakes
  • Fauna dependent on the lake, like birds, fish and others are disturbed by the excess and disturbing human activity
  • Violation of land use regulations by the private organizations while implementing the scheme
  1. With the privatization approach leading to serious protests by the public and the pending Public Interest Litigation (PIL) in the High Court, govt has now decided to make amends with a paradigm shift in its approach by declaring that the State Government would undertake, through its agencies such as the Bangalore Development Authority (BDA), BBMP and Bangalore Metropolitan Region Development Authority (BMRDA), the rejuvenation works of 27 lakes in the Phase I by allocating finances to the extent of Rs 1.5–2 crores (US$ 375,000 to 500,000) per lake which would involve:
  • Desilting of the lake bed
  • Diversion of sewage and other processes
  • Free access to the public
  • Discontinue the policy of privatization of lakes and
  • Revisit the allotments already made to private parties in view of reported misuse of the lake property by encroachment for private gains

The LDA has transferred 17 lakes to BBMP while rest of the lakes are now controlled by Karnataka Forest Department.


  1. Pollution

lake 3

Recent example of Dirty foam bubbles out of Varthur Lake

The area between Bellandur and Varthur lakes, Yemalur and other areas situated near the channel that connect Bellandur lake to Varthur lake, have been suffering the most.

  • The foam is a result of the water in the lake having high content of ammonia and phosphate and very low dissolved oxygen. The sewage line is simply connected to the storm water drain which flow directly to the lakes. It is this detergent content in the lake that creates the lather on the lake’s
  • Another cause for pollution is the encroachment of the lakebed. The rules demarcate 300m around any lake as a no-construction zone


  • Bengaluru’s lakes are interconnected, and domestic sewage let into a storm water drain in Madivala or HSR Layout can cause foaming in Varthur. Unless the other upstream lakes in Koramangala-Challaghatta valley which flow into Varthur lake, are treated, there is nothing that can be done to restore Varthur lake
  • The sewage lines must be disconnected from the storm water drains and the water from the storm water drains must be treated before it is let into the lake.
  • Wetlands should be created near every lake and the treated sewage should be let into the wetland before it is let into the lakes directly.
  • The only long term solution is Treating water. The BWSSB should increase the capacity and standard of treating sewage
  1. Lake Encroachments

The following lakes are encroached

  • Lingannana Kere: Most of the 56 acres and 37 guntas
  • Kadirenahalli Lake: 9.33 acres
  • Ittamadu Lake: 4 acres
  • Chikkallasandra Lake: 16.23 acres
  • Goudanapalya Lake: Encroachments to be assessed
  • Halagevaderahalli Lake: Encroachments to be assessed
  • Allalasandra lake: 1.5 acres cleared
  • Sarakki lake: Most of 34.84 acres cleared

High Court issued an order in August 2014 to free the sarakki lake of all encroachments disposing off a PIL filed by People’s Campaign for the Right to Water. The district administration has formed three special teams, each headed by an assistant commissioner and armed with multiple earth movers and have taken up the clearance drive.

Encouraged by the demolition drives at Sarakki and Allalasandra lake beds, the district administration is planning to remove encroachments from other water bodies in the coming months. Officials said 80 acres of encroached land will be cleared near at least four lakes.


Q. Why is Bangalore turning into Garbage city from Garden city?

Q. Discuss the Problems associated with solid waste management is cities of Karnataka?

Q. How can garbage problem be addressed in Bangalore?

Q. What measures have been taken by Government to address solid waste in Bangalore? 

  • With the city’s population nearing 10 million, solid waste management (SWM) remains an intractable problem. The city’s per capita solid waste generation is estimated to be around half-a- kilogram. Going by this, the city generates around 5,000 tonnes of garbage every day. The BBMP employs around 14,000 pourakarmikas (or safai karamcharis) to tackle it.

garbage 5Issues

  • The issue flared up in the wake of villagers’ refusal to allow garbage trucks to dump the city’s refuse into the nearby landfills.
  • The waste from industries and community areas is disposed in an unscientific manner at several open dump sites across the city. There are more than 60 dump sites consisting of both municipal and industrial waste existing in and around Bangalore city; the locations are totally unhygienic
  • The disposal sites have got tremendous potential of spreading the epidemics/diseases to the people living in their immediate vicinity and at nearby places.
  • With around 9,000 persons working with the private garbage contractors, the number of workers goes up to around 24,000.
  • Despite considerable advance in collecting and segregating waste at source, nearly 20 per cent of the waste still remains to be picked or is picked irregularly, giving the city a grumpy look.
  • Several households still dump it on empty sites or into gutters which in turn get clogged during rains and cause flooding.
  • Mounting garbage piles attracted international media’s attention and business honchos began to apprehend serious damage to the city’s reputation as the capital of modern Indian economy.garbage

Kasa Muktha ward drive

  • To address the Garbage problem in Bangalore “Kasa-muktha Bengaluru” (garbage-free Bangalore) scheme launched on July 24,2013.
  • KasaMuktha is a project to reduce to zero, the portion of the solid waste generated in Bangalore which is sent to landfills. By recycling and reusing more and more of the waste that is generated in homes and businesses.

What’s new about Kasa Mukta

  • The three components of Kasa Muktha that differentiate it from the past campaigns: A third party audit, legal obligation of BBMP and commitment by contractors.
    The programme was started on pilot basis in 22 Wards
  • Practitioners from across the city, Residents Welfare Associations and other interested citizens specifically from the 22 wards will be assigned the job of monitoring and keeping records. Citizen volunteers will be assigned as ward mentors, along with BBMP officials.
  • Waste wardens will keep an eye on the ward level activities to ensure the segregation at source and transportation with care.
  • Citizens will be fined Rs.100 for not segregating the garbage and for littering. Repetitive violation of the segregation will lead to higher fine.

‘1 Mane, 2 Dabba, Mix Maada Beda’ One home, two dustbins – this is the philosophy

  • Wake Up Clean Up has formulated for Kasa Mukta to bring a systematic change at both the ends of garbage problem: Citizens and contractors.
  • Wake Up Clean UP has partnered with city’s various organisations such as Bruhat Bengaluru Mananagara Palike (BBMP), Bangalore City Connect, FKCCI (Federation of Karnataka Chambers of Commerce and Industry), SWMRT (Solid Waste Management Round Table) and other representatives of stakeholders who are interested in a garbage-free city.


  • Residents of the 22 wards, where the pilot project is being launched will be motivated to follow the philosophy – 1 mane, 2 Dabba, Mix Maada Beda.
  • Waste is to be divided into four sections: wet waste, bio-medical waste, sanitary waste and dry waste.kasamuktha_process

BATF agenda in force

  • It is more than a decade since new laws were brought in with regard to collection of waste in Bangalore. Under the recommendation of the Bangalore Agenda Task Force (BATF), door-to-door collection of waste was introduced. (Earlier, street-end waste bins were the norm.)
  • Secondly, the BBMP introduced segregation of garbage at source by providing four different bins placed over a cart to each waste collector. Two of them were meant for dry waste while another two were to collect wet waste. The collectors are provided uniform, gloves, and masks. The gloves and mask are rarely seen to be used. Several workers find it impractical for continuous use. They are recommended to undergo health check-ups every month. Usually, waste collection is a family occupation. Besides both spouses, even children join the workers soon enough to keep the occupation going in the family.

Practical realities/issues

What are the different dimensions to the problem?

  1. A  worker is supposed to sweep 3/4 of a km of road every morning and collect garbage from two rows of houses, which account for roughly 120 households. The cart is capable of carrying about 100 to 150 kg. of waste. But practically things do not work out that way.
  2. Since zoning regulations have been violated in 80 per cent of cases, the number of houses on the stretch has risen to 300 and above on an average. Consequently, he or she approaches just about 60 per cent of the houses and ignores those who are late-risers or not found at the doorsteps when the cart makes its passage.
  3. The dry and wet waste do not come in the same proportion as to fill the designated drums the cart carries. Hence, the segregation at source leaves much to be desired.
  4. During festivals or the mango season, the amount of garbage per household goes up twofold and all that discarded does not neatly fit into the drums meant to carry them to the dumpsters.
  5. The loading point has spillovers which render those stretches of the streets untidy.
  6. The segregated trash gets mixed up while loadingon to the trucks headed for the landfills, thereby rendering the segregation scheme inconsequential. (However, 154 Dry Waste Centres set up by the BBMP do receive some such waste for being sent to the recycling units. These are large pieces of recyclable waste that truck loaders separate out while the trucks are on the move.)
  7. Waste generation has a direct relationship with prosperity level. Greater prosperity boosts consumption and leads to households discarding more items. Nearly 485 items are cast out by households in a city which include kitchen waste, construction debris, food leftovers, cells, diapers, automobile parts, bulbs, mercury tubes, syringes, polyvinyl coverings, tyres, cardboard packaging, broken furniture, bandages, egg shells, plastic bags, clothes, all kinds of metal, bottles, glass items, chipped porcelain, and sanitary ware.
  8. It is pointed out that the waste generated by the cities today is not all trash. It is pointed out that several firms are interested in lifting the waste and recycling them to extract glass, metals, paper etc., at their own cost and even pay the BBMP some money. But the contractors’ and truckers’ lobby has such a stranglehold with powerful sinews inside the system that no proposals to this effect can afford to turn into schemes.
  9. There is an almost unbreakable nexus between corporators, officials and garbage contractors who do not want segregation at source and biomethanisation of the waste at ward level. They profit from trucks ferrying the garbage. The benefit increases in direct proportion to the distance a truck travels.

Some Initiatives to address the problem:

  1. Under the Union Urban Development Ministry’s directives, the BBMP has taken several initiatives on its own to reduce, reuse and recycle the waste.
  2. Proposals from companies such as Terra Firma and Maltose to collect wet and green waste to turn it into manure are being considered. Similarly, there is possibility of coconut and sugarcane waste being turned into fuel pellets.
  3. A plant to convert the waste plastic into granules is also coming up. These could be used by mixing eight per cent of weight with bitumen for relaying of roads.garbage 3
  4. Hotel waste can be converted into biogas and can be resupplied to the same hotels from where it originates. However this would require rebate or waiving of sales tax on gas produced this way from the State Government.
  5. The BBMP is also empanelling vendors for waste collection from bulk generators such as big housing complexes and firms. The possibility of turning feathers from birds and poultry markets into shuttlecocks and hair from the beauty salons into saleable tresses for wigs is also being explored.
  6. The BBMP has so far commissioned two bio-methanisation plants and another eight to 10 are being installed. It had tendered for 16 such plants. Each of them can turn five tonnes of garbage into methane a day.garbage 2

garbage 4

 Traffic woes and solutions


  • Bangalore is amongst fastest growing cities in Asia
  • Existing Bangalore Mahanagara Palika (BMP) area is 226.2 sq km BMP has 100 wards
  • Bruhat Bangalore Mahanagara Palika (BBMP/Greater Bangalore) covers an area of 561 sq km
  • Bangalore Metropolitan Area is 1306 sq km
  • Bangalore Rural District Area is 5815 sq km
  • Bangalore Metropolitan Region Development Area covers 8005 sq km
  • Bangalore population was 5.6 million in 2001Bangalore has 27.8 lakh registered vehicles
  • Bangalore has a radial pattern of road network converging in the core area of the city
  • Study area has 5,000 kms of road length


  • is the sole provider of public transport
  • It has a fleet strength of 4960 buses with 1250 routes BMTC carries 35 lakh
  • passengers per day Demand exceeds capacity during peak hours

Metro rail

  • work is under progress It covers a distance of 33 km in two corridors
  • Bangalore has 5 radial rail corridors These rail corridors are used only for intercity travel


  • Bangalore has one of the fastest growing airport in Country From 4.8 million passengers in 2005-06, it has increased to 6 million in 2006-07 Annual Growth rate of 25 %


  1. Increased vehicular density
  • With the increase in population and the expansion of the city, the problem of connectivity of the populace has arisen. Quite obviously personalized modes of transport have grown at a tremendous rate and two wheelers along with the cars almost comprise 90% of the total registered vehicular population in the city.
  • Two wheelers constitute more than 70% of the total volume, while cars comprise 15%, autos 4% and the remaining 8% includes other vehicles such as buses, vans and tempos.
  1. Roads
  • There is very little scope for expansion of roads and the need to use existing roads for smooth movement the roads are unable to cope with the heavy volume of vehicles. All or most of the roads are operating above their capacity and the volume: capacity ranges from 1:2, 1:3 and 1:5
  • Travel speed has dropped to 15 kmph during the peak hours
  • The roads in Bangalore have too many intersections compared to any other city. We don’t have a proper plan in place, so that’s why we are facing so many issues today. Inefficient master plan: master plan 2015 doesn’t consider regional context
  1. Public transport
  • We don’t have a unified body to control the transport sector; all of them are working as individual bodies. The BMTC doesn’t interact with KSRTC; the KSRTC doesn’t coordinate with the Traffic Police, so the need of the hour is that we need to have a unified body to take care of Bangalore’s transport sector
  • Absence of integrated transportation system
  • Absence of Mass Transit System
  • Existing public transport system is over crowded during peak hours
  • There is substantial increase in average household income This has led to high private vehicle ownership Congestion, high traffic density, slow speeds, delays, high travel cost are due to high vehicle ownership
  1. Parking–Insufficient or no parking spaces for vehicles
  2. bad traffic management –There are about 1000 traffic constables for every one lakh vehicle in the city. Stringent fines and enforcing stronger laws will help to a certain extent.
  3. CBD(central business district) comprises of bus terminus railway junctions, commercial complexes and other major land uses  Heavy concentration of vehicles in the CBD Air and noise pollution levels are above permissible limits in CBD
  4. Walk is also a significant mode of transport, but there is no scope in big cities because of urban sprawl Footpath facility is inadequate in most places Pedestrians are most victimized in Accidents In 2000, 42% of fatalities in accidents were pedestrians and  are increasing year by year
  5. Greenbelt encroachment is common Over 200 layouts have sprung up in green belt areas This has compounded the existing problems
  6. Bangalore has a floating population of 15 lakhs Floating population commute as much as 200 kms
  7. 33 percent of people in the city die of road accidents every year; it is indeed a huge number.


  • Form a Bangalore Metropolitan Land Transport Authority (BMLTA) for traffic problems
  • Integrate land use and transportation planning
  • Integrate all modes of transport
  • Encourage public transport over private modes
  • Proper plan and regulations for new developments
  • Synchronize traffic signals on major corridors
  • Provide multilevel car parking facilities
  • Enforce strict land use regulations
  • Congestion pricing in Central Business District
  • Transportation system should change with dynamics of people
  • Include traffic awareness programs in schools
  • Provide real time information using GPS/GIS systems
  • Use Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) for public transport
  • Make Traffic Impact Study (TIS) mandatory for new developments
  • To enforce pay and park system by charging a higher fee.
  • we need to implement Singapore model of levying steep tariffs and strictly enforce lane discipline, violators should be made to pay heavy fines.
  • Finally we should discourage cars with single passengers and adopt incentives for car pooling like priority lanes
  • Decongest cities over time. Develop other cities
  • Obeying traffic rules
  • Drivers Education
  • Signal Planning
  • Stagger work hours
  • Awareness programs about air and noise quality


Kataria Committee report

  • On February 19th 2015, Chief Minister Siddaramaiah had announced a one-man committee headed by IAS officer Rajendra Kumar Kataria to probe into various irregularities in the BBMP.
  • The committee which investigated into the matter has now submitted its report to the government.
  • The probe was conducted with the help of officials from the State accounts department. It was a kind of post-mortem on financial irregularities in solid waste management, sub-standard civil works etc.
  • Contents of the report have not been made public yet.
  • The government which is under pressure from the BBMP’s ruling party (BJP) and civic society to conduct the election on time has no other way to postpone the election but to dissolve the existing council.
  • Bengaluru Urban Deputy Commissioner has completed the process of delimitation of wards based on 2011 census.
  • Though the government is yet to publish the draft notification of the delimitation for public display, the process of calling for objection and publishing final notification will not take much time.
  • Delimitation process was done at the behest of State Election Commissioner’s direction to the Deputy Commissioner to complete the process without any delay. Yet another instrument that the government had, to delay the election was Restructuring of BBMP.
  • But, opposition from various quarters on delaying the election for the sake of restructuring, reduced the chances of using restructuring as a tool to postpone the election. As it is evident for the government to conduct election on time, the only way out is to dissolve the BBMP council.
  • Dissolving the council before the term ends gives the government six months time from the date of dissolution, to conduct the election. Failing to perform duties can be reason for dissolution Section 99 of the Karnataka Municipal Council Act gives power to the government to dissolve the corporation if in the opinion of the Government, the corporation is not competent to perform, or makes default in the performance of any of the duties imposed on it, exceeds or abuses its powers or fails to carry out the directions or orders given by Government to it under this Act or any other law, or is acting in a manner prejudicial to the interests of the corporation.
  • The Kataria report is believed to have given a solid reason for the government to dissolve the council for failing to perform its duties and for abusing power.
  • The Rajender Kumar Kataria report has noted gross irregularities in the Bruhat Bangalore Mahanagara Palike (BBMP) by engineers, account staff, officers and contractors. The 76-page report probed into irregularities committed in 198 wards of the BBMP since 2008.
  • It recommended disciplinary action against engineers, account staff and officers, who have caused loss to the corporation. It suggested recovery of the amount paid illegally.
  • The report became the basis for the government to defend its decision to split the BBMP

The report notes the following issues with BBMP

  1. Transportation of solid waste management not transparent and lacks internal control leading to irregular/excess payments
  2. Civil works grossly mismanaged inefficiently monitored causing huge losses to the BBMP through non adherence to programme of works, irregular tender process, substandard works and illegal payments
  3. Lacks control of property khata registration and tax collection. This has caused inefficient tax collection and regularisation of illegal irregular properties
  4. Revenue loss from advertisement tax due to nexus between officials and ad agencies
  5. No policy for laying OFC in BBMP limits causing damage to roads, footpaths and loss of revenue
  6. Lack of financial discipline is the root cause for BBMP’s deteriorating financial position, injudicious borrowings, inefficient debt servicing and mounting pending bills


  1. The Karnataka Slum Areas (Improvement and Clearance) Act, Section 4 (2) mandates that every building owner in a slum area should be issued a registration certificate after due process.
  2. Under the Rajiv Awas Yojana (RAY) launched in June 2011, BBMP and the State government have proposed to build 12,436 housing units in the City over the next two years. This will cover 55 slum areas. The Central assistance under RAY had conditions attached. The implementing states were to assign property rights to slum dwellers and provide reservation of land for Economically Weaker Sections (EWS) / Low Income Groups (LIG). Besides, 25 per cent of municipal budget was to be earmarked for basic services to the urban poor/slum-dwellers. Also, the government was required to bring in legislative amendments and policy changes to redress land and affordable housing shortages for the urban poor. The Karnataka government had inked a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU), agreeing to adhere to all these conditions before receiving the central funding.
  3. The National Urban Livelihoods Mission launched by the Union Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation requires urban local bodies such as BBMP to provide temporary shelters. And this should include the migrant construction workers

But these programmes have not been successful and there is mushrooming of slums all over the city. Further land ownership rests with the government. Whenever the State wants, it can denotify a slum and evict the dwellers

KSDB estimates that Bengaluru has 13.86 lakh slum-dwellers. Most working men and women in these slums are employed as domestic maids, drivers, house-keeping staff in apartments and hotels, security guards and more. The service industry requires these men and women to be at its beck and call. And this implies, they cannot be resettled in housing units built hours away from the city centre.

Needs to be done

  1. Firstly, the State should acknowledge the existence of such slums. State Urban Development Department has to conduct a detailed survey to get a more realistic number of slums in the City.
  2. The next step would be to bring even the undeclared slums under the RAY project as mandated by last year’s Central guidelines.
  3. To get the government into action mode, employers need to first recognise the workers’ problems of low-cost housing and critical issues of basic existence
  4. The Slum Board echoes the government’s resolve to make Bengaluru a slum-free city. But that would require the city’s urban planning to be reworked to integrate low-cost housing, and the recognition that slum-dwellers are an integral part of the city’s functioning.



  • Bengaluru is estimated to generate about 57,000 metric tonnes of e-waste annually. Hundreds of electroplating and e-waste recycling units in the City’s industrial pockets discharge highly polluting chemicals into the water streams and lakes Unchecked and unregulated. KSPCB faces a serious challenge from hundreds of small electroplating industrial units. This has emerged as a problem of huge proportions in the industrial belts of Peenya, Mahadevapura and Hosur road.
  • For example In Peenya, decades of unchecked industrial pollution has crippled the ground water system. Over 2,100 industries are packed in an area of about 40 sqkms in the Peenya estate. Engaged in chemical, leather, pharmaceutical, electroplating, polymer and allied sectors since the late 1970s, these industries are in close proximity to residential areas. An earlier survey of 72 borewells in the area, conducted by KSPCB, had found that 20 of them had abnormally high chromium content. Chromium is a carcinogenic metal known to cause lung, skin and kidney diseases.
  • Domestic discharge of nitrates and phosphates directly into the storm water drains and UGDs from thousands of households is equally unregulated.

Current state of effluent treatment

Rules say:

  • Most big and medium industries follow zero discharge procedures.
  • There are also industries that are permitted to take their effluents in small quantities to the 14 Common Effluent Treatment Plants (CETP).
  • A few other industries are allowed to discharge the effluents into the BWSSB’s underground drainage system, provided the waste goes through a primary or secondary treatment process first.
  • The industrial discharge should be checked for quality. The Biochemical Oxidant Demand (BOD) should not cross 500 mg/L and Chemical Oxygen Demand should remain within 1,000 mg/L.

In practice:

  • Industries have been caught dumping untreated effluents into the CETP without any permission.
  • Even some big industries are guilty of this illegal dumping.
  • Though some industries have their own treatment plants, many are not functional.
  • Almost 96 per cent of e-waste generated is recycled by the highly unregulated informal sector

So, what is the way out?

  • Strict enforcement of legislation for industries
  • Setting up effluent treatment plants
  • Replacement of damaged pipelines and lining of sewer drains to prevent leakage of sewage in pipes and seepage through unlined channels
  • prevention of mixing or leaking of sewage with groundwater
  • To boost round-the-clock surveillance of water quality, installation of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) gadgets at the spot where the effluents are finally let out from industrial units. Real-time data from SCADA can be remotely monitored from a KSPCB office.
  • BWSSB could also check the quality of treated water emanating from the city’s 14 CETPs. This way, the average BOD levels can be tracked on a daily or even hourly basis. When the levels exceed limits, alarms are automatically triggered.
  • Penalties and perhaps, even unit closures can thus be better coordinated.


BWSSB  has proposed to reclaim at least 100 mld (million litres of water per day) of water from the Vrishabhavathi Valley. After considering waste water from sewage treatment plants from Vrishabhavathi, Mailasandra, Kengeri and Doddabele, the board will have the capacity to treat at least 335 mld by the end of the year.

The proposed scheme comprises several stages of treatment for reclaiming water from the Vrishabhavathi Valley river.

  1. Water reclamation plant at Doddabele

The boards plans to treat water from Vrishabhavathi river and have a water reclamation plant at Doddabele to treat 152 mld of water using the MBBR (Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor) plus Ultrafiltration (UF) technology

  1. Tavarekere site

This will be followed by a chemical free disinfection using ultra-violet UV radiation at Tavarekere

  1. Wetland treatment

The treated water will then be pumped into the Arkavathi River at Tavarekere, into wetlands along the Arkavathi river. This will help natural self-purification, freshening and oxygenation and also help create an environmental aquatic equilibrium. The water will then blend with Arkavathi river for approximately 7 kms, thereafter entering the Tippagondanahalli (TG Halli) reservoir.

  1. Tippagondanahalli (TG Halli) reservoir

The water in TG halli will be used as raw water for the proposed 140 mld high technology drinking water treatment plant employing clarification, ozonation, PAC (powdered activated carbon) and UF, followed by chlorination. The treated water at TG Halli is of potable standards and will be supplied to the transmission network of Bengaluru City.

The DPR has already been submitted to the State government. The report has now been placed before Karnataka Urban Infrastructure Development and Finance Corporation Limited (KUIDFCL), who in turn, have sought certain clarifications in the DPR. The official said that the estimated cost of the project is around Rs 495 crore.

The huge challenge still lies in accepting such treated water for potable purposes by the public

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