Published on: June 1, 2021



What: An advanced nuclear fusion experimental research device

Location: The Institute of Plasma Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (ASIPP) in Hefei, China.

Purpose: To replicate the process of nuclear fusion, which is the same reaction that powers the sun.



  • The EAST
  • Is one of three major domestic tokamaks that are presently being operated across the country. (Others : The HL-2A reactor and J-TEXT)
  • Has set several records for the duration of confinement of exceedingly hot plasma
  • Is part of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) facility, which will become the world’s largest nuclear fusion reactor when it becomes operational in 2035. (The project includes the contributions of several countries, including India, South Korea, Japan, Russia and the United States)

How does the ‘artificial sun’ EAST work:

The EAST Tokamak device is designed to replicate the nuclear fusion process carried out by the sun and stars.

Nuclear fusion is a process through which high levels of energy are produced without generating large quantities of waste. Previously, energy was produced through nuclear fission — a process in which the nucleus of a heavy atom was split into two or more nuclei of lighter atoms.

  • While fission is an easier process to carry out, it generates far more nuclear waste. Unlike fission, fusion also does not emit greenhouse gases and is considered a safer process with lower risk of accidents. Once mastered, nuclear fusion could potentially provide unlimited clean energy and very low costs.
  • For nuclear fusion to occur, tremendous heat and pressure are applied on hydrogen atoms so that they fuse together. The nuclei of deuterium and tritium — both found in hydrogen — are made to fuse together to create a helium nucleus, a neutron along with a whole lot of energy.
  • Fuel is heated to temperatures of over 150 million degrees C so that it forms a hot plasma “soup” of subatomic particles. With the help of a strong magnetic field, the plasma is kept away from the walls of the reactor to ensure it does not cool down and lose its potential to generate large amounts of energy. The plasma is confined for long durations for fusion to take place.

What is the latest record and its significance:

  • The EAST reactor set a new record when it achieved a plasma temperature of 216 million degrees Fahrenheit and also managed to run for 20 seconds at 288 million degrees Fahrenheit recently. To put this in perspective, the sun’s core only reaches about 15 million degrees Celsius, which means the reactor was able to touch temperatures that are 10 times hotter than that.
  • The next goal for the scientists behind the experimental reactor is to maintain the high temperature for a long period of time. Previously, the EAST had reached a record temperature of 100 million degrees Celsius in 2018.
  • This is a step in the right direction as far as China’s green development is concerned, Lin Boquiang told the Global Times. “It’s more like a future technology that’s critical for China’s green development push,” he said. But while this is a significant development, Boquiang said there is still a good three decades before China is able to see a fully functioning artificial sun.