Why in news?
the Mangrove Alliance for Climate (MAC) was launched with India as a partner At the 27th Session of Conference of Parties (COP27) UN climate summit
- The move, is in line with India’s goal to increase its carbon sink, collaborating with Sri Lanka, Indonesia and other countries to preserve and restore.
- India is home to one of the largest remaining areas of mangroves in the world the Sundarbans and has years of expertise in restoration of mangrove cover that can be used to aid global measures in this direction.
Who initiated it ?
- the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Indonesia, the Mangrove Alliance for Climate (MAC) includes India, Sri Lanka, Australia, Japan, and Spain.
- It seeks to educate and spread awareness worldwide on the role of mangroves in curbing global warming and its potential as a solution for climate change.
What is the nature of Organization?
- The intergovernmental alliance works on a voluntary basis ,there are no real checks and balances to hold members accountable.
- The parties will decide their own commitments and deadlines regarding planting and restoring mangroves.
- The members will also share expertise and support each other in researching, managing and protecting coastal areas.
The mangrove vegetation:
- A mangrove is a shrub or tree that grows in coastal saline or brackish water.
- Vegetation : Tropical coastal vegetation.
- Distribution : Tropics ,subtropics and temperate coastal areas, mainly between latitudes 30° N and 30° S, with the greatest mangrove area within 5° of the equator.
- Distribution in Karnataka : Uttara Karnataka , Udupi ,and Dakshina
- Nature : Salt-tolerant trees, also called halophytes, and are adapted to live in harsh coastal conditions.
- They contain a complex salt filtration system and a complex root system to cope with saltwater immersion and wave action.
- Adapted : low-oxygen conditions of waterlogged mud, most likely in the upper half of the intertidal zone
the significance of mangroves:
- In coastal areas they host diverse marine life.
- They also support a rich food web, with molluscs and algae-filled substrate acting as a breeding ground for small fish, mud crabs and shrimps, thus providing a livelihood to local artisanal fishers
- They act as effective carbon stores, holding up to four times the amount of carbon as other forested ecosystems.
- Their preservation can both aid in removal of carbon from the atmosphere and prevent the release of the same upon their destruction.
What are the current state of the mangroves?
- South Asia houses some of the most extensive areas of mangroves globally, while Indonesia hosts one-fifth of the overall amount.
- India holds around 3 percent of South Asia’s mangrove population.
- Distribution in India : The Sundarbans in West Bengal, the Andaman’s region, the Kachchh and Jamnagar areas in Gujarat too have substantial mangrove cover.
- Between 2010 and 2020, around 600 sq km of mangroves were lost of which more than 62% was due to direct human impacts, the Global Mangrove Alliance said in its 2022 report.