What is in news : The Karnataka cabinet on Wednesday decided to create a new Scheduled Tribes (ST) secretariat to oversee the utilisation of funds and implementation of programmes meant for their welfare.
SCHEDULED TRIBES IN KARNATAKA
- 5% of Karnataka’s population
- Among major STs, Koli Dhor have the highest (92.2per cent) rural population, followed by Gond (91.7per cent), Marati (90.8per cent) and Naikda (85.1per cent).
SCHEDULED TRIBES IN THE CONSTITUTION
- Article 366 (25) defined scheduled tribes as “such tribes or tribal communities or parts of or groups within such tribes or tribal communities as are deemed under Article 342 to be Scheduled Tribes for the purposes of this constitution”
- Tribal communities in India have been recognized by the Indian Constitution under ‘Schedule 5’ of the constitution
- Article 342 provides for listing of scheduled tribes State/Union Territory wise and not on an all India basis.
- According to the 2011 Census, the Scheduled Tribes account for 104 million representing 8.6% of the country’s population.
- The essential characteristics of these communities are:-
- Primitive Traits
- Geographical isolation
- Distinct culture
- Shy of contact with community at large
- Economically backwards
- Among the tribal groups, several have adapted to modern life but there are tribal groups who are more vulnerable. The Dhebar Commission (1973) created a separate category “Primitive Tribal Groups (PTGs)” which was renamed in 2006 as “Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs)