Karnataka- Varieties of Soils
Karnataka- Varieties of Soils
Briefly describe the different varieties of soils present in Karnataka and their distribution.
Introduction: (upto 30 words) Start by pointing out as how Karnataka is blessed with different types of soils.
Body: (upto 100 words) Briefly describe different Soil types.
Conclusion: (upto 30 words) Conclude by pointing out the importance of Soil Conservation.
Coastal Alluvial Soils:
- Found in the coastal belt of the state comprising Daskhina Kannada, Udupi and Uttara Kannada districts.
- The soil includes deposits from the west bound rivers, rivulets and streams transported along the coast and also materials deposited by the waves.
- These Soils are the mixture of both sandy and clayey and also have humus content.
- These are highly fertile but quite inferior in the terms of fertility compared to the alluvial Soils of the river plains and the deltaic alluvials.
- This soil is known for the cultivation of humid crops like paddy, banana, coconut Arcanut etc.
- Laterite soils are red in colour due to little clay and more gravel of red sand-stones and quite hard. Laterite soils are mostly the end products of weathering.
- They are formed under conditions of high temperature and heavy rainfall with alternate wet and dry periods.
- Heavy rainfall promotes leaching (nutrients gets washed away by water) of soil whereby lime and silica are leached away and a soil rich in oxides of iron and aluminium compounds is left behind.
- ‘Laterite’ means brick in Latin. They harden greatly on loosing moisture.
- These hard soils are cut in the form of large bricks and used for construction. Thus cutting of laterite bricks is a major industry of the region.
- Laterisation process in confined particularly to the areas of heavily rainfall, and high temperature.
- Soils extends upto Belagavi in the north, Kodagu, Dakshina Kannada, Udupi, Hassan, Chikkamagaluru, Shivamogga, Dharwada, Uttara Kannada.
- These are known for the cultivation of Rice, Banana, Sugar cane, Coconut, Areacanut, Cardamom, Cashewnut, pepper, Coffee, Tea, Orange, Ginger etc in the coastal alluvials as well as malnad region. In the other parts of the state Jower, Ragi, oil seeds and pulses are produced.
- When irrigated even in the drier parts of laterites rice, sugarcane, banana, capsicum, ragi, ginger, coconut and mulberry are grown
- High in magnesium and titanium oxides. Also contain minute particles of clay and retentive of moisture for a long time. These are rich in calcium and magnesium but deficit of phosphorous and organic material.
- These are quite soft during the rainy season but deep cracks develops during the dry period.
- The black soils are highly useful for dry cultivation and also get good yield with occasional planned irrigation.
- These are highly suitable for the cultivation of cotton.
- In the northern part of the state it is locally called ‘Eremannu’.
- These are derived from the weathering of basalt rocks.
- Some parts of Belgavi, Vijapura, Kalburgi and Bidar Yadagir and Bagalkote districts have shallow black soils.
- The red soils are formed by the disintegration of Igneous rocks and have red colour on account of high percent of ferrous oxide.
- Most widely distributed in the state. They cover almost the entire south and central part of the state.
- Found in Chitradurga, Shivamogga, Bengaluru (Rural), Ramanagar, Mysuru, Mandya and Tumakuru districts. In north Karnataka patches of red soils are called ‘masari’ soils.
- Ragi, is the most important crop under rain fed conditions. Besides, Jower, ground nut, castar seed, cotton, pulses, coconut, tobacco are cultivated. In the irrigated areas rice, sugarcane, banana, vegetables, arecanut are produced.