Mark Cubbon And L.B.Bowring
Compare and contrast Mark Cubbon and Lewin Bentham Bowring’s developmental initiatives.
Introduction: (upto 30 words) briefly introduce about Mark Cubbon and Lewin bowring
Body: (upto 100 words) compare their contributions and mention the differences in their administration
Conclusion: Broad view of commissioner rule in Karnataka (upto 30 words)
Following the annexation of Mysore to English East India Company the British began to administer the state of Mysore from 1831-1881 by creating a new office called the office of commissioners. Initially the office had two commissioners-colonels Briggs as the senior commissioner and Lushington as the junior commissioner. In 1833 Morrison became the sole commissioner. The two most important commissioners are Sir Mark Cubbon and Bowring.
- Mark Cubbon took charge in 1834 and is known for his excellent handling of the kingdom. He made Bangalore the capital and divided the princely state into 4 divisions, each under a British superintendent.
- The state was further divided into 120 taluks with 85 taluk courts, with all lower level administration in the Kannada language.
- The Amildar was in charge of a taluk to whom a Hoblidar, the caretaker of a Hobli comprising a few villages, reported.
- The office of the commissioner had eight departments; revenue, post, police, cavalry, public works, medical, the animal husbandry, judiciary and education.
- The judiciary was hierarchical with the commissioners' court at the apex, followed by the Huzur Adalat, four superintending courts and eight Sadar Munsiff courts at the lowest level.
- Mark Cubbon is credited with the construction of over one thousand miles of roads, hundreds of dams, coffee production and improvements in the tax and revenue systems
- Cubbon also made administration very strict and based on codes. Revenue officers taking bribes and a court officer holding extreme Wahabi tenets were dismissed
- Prior to Cubbon, government documents were written in Urdu, Hindi, Persian, Kannada or Marathi and this led to difficulties and corruption. Cubbon restricted the languages to be used to Kannada and Marathi
- As part of financial reforms record keeping of all revenues collected was made stringent and all spending was controlled. Cubbon maintained public accounts using the Kantarayi pagoda (=Kantirava Fanam) as the currency.
- Cubbon supported educational institutions run mainly by missionaries and also worked on healthcare, establishing hospitals and homes for lepers.
- Cubbon worked on the improvement of irrigation. These included the Marikanive project in Hiriyur, work on the Nugu, Shimsha (Maddur), Hemavathi (near Sakleshpur), Tunga & Bhadra (near Shimoga) and Kaveri river project near Siddapur.
- He founded the agri-horticultural society in 1839 and had the Lalbagh gardens transferred to it.
- Cubbon introduced new crops, varieties of crops, new breeds of livestock (apart from maintaining traditional breeds like the Amrit Mahal that had helped Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan win battles.
- Lewin Bowring became the chief commissioner in 1862 and held the position until 1870.
- Under Lewin Bowring, the state was divided into three divisions, each under a British commissioner.
- There were eight districts in all under these divisions, with each looked after by a deputy commissioner who was aided by the Amildars and Hoblidars.
- The property "Registration Act", the "Indian Penal code" and "Code of Criminal Procedure" came into effect and the judiciary was separated from the executive branch of the administration.
- However, unlike Mark Cubbon, Lewin Bowring generally preferred to employ British officers.
- Central Education agency was set up, some of major works are set up of Bangalore high school which later became Bangalore central college.
- Other Achievements are building of jails in important towns, appointment of medical staff in large numbers in hospitals.
- Bangalore Museum and central college building are his creation
- Famine conditions in Bangalore made him construct the miller tank. Hospitals were also constructed.
- The lady Curzon Bowring hospital reminds one of the services rendered by Bowring
Bowring was succeeded by Sir Richard Meade, Saunders and Gordon who occupied office from 1870-1881. They are the last Commissioners of Mysore. In 1881, following a strong lobby favouring rendition, the British handed back the administration of Mysore to King Chamaraja Wodeyar VIII. The post of commissioner was abolished and replaced by a Diwan, his two advisers and a British resident in the Mysore court.