600 years of the Bahmani capital
Why in news? Nearly 600 years ago, shifting the Bahmani Sultanate’s capital from Gulbarga to Bidar brought about a great change in culture, art and architecture of the region.
- The ninth Sultan of the Bahmani Empire, Ahmed Shah Wali Bahmani made Bidar his capital and ruled from 1422 till 1436.
- This ruler made Bidar beautiful by inviting artisans and architects from Turkey and Persia.
- Ahmed Shah Wali Bahmani involved local talents to add an Indo-Islamic touch to Bahmani architecture.
- After the fall of the Chalukya dynasty, the local artisans, who were experts in temple carving, began to get involved in Bahmani work.
- It was an gave an opportunity for artisans to develop a new style the fusion of Indo-Islamic art and architecture(began).
- Monuments has outer parts of the structures with many intricate and decorative forms of detailed craftsmanship.
- In the unique Bahmani style, most structures are built in Turkish design,
- The doors, windows and platforms are built in Indo architecture style using black stone.
- The depiction of living things in Islam is restricted, the artists have carved floral and geometrical patterns.
- Originally built by the Bahamani kings and some alterations and additions were made by the Barid Shahi rulers.
- Outer court was used by the male staff and guards and inner for the accommodation of the guards.
- Main building of the palace was for the use of the sultan and his harem.
- Royal Palace, was built by Ahemd shah.
- It was the royal residence.
- The place was fully decorated with coloured titles and stone carvings
- Coronations of several Bahamanis and Barid Shahi sultans were held there.
Solah Khamba Mosque (Solah Sutoon Ki Masjid)
- It was built by Qubil Sultani between 1423 and 1424.
- The mosque derives its name from the 16 pillars that are lined in the front of the structure.
- Popularly known as the Zanana Masjid
- This mosque is one of the largest in India.
- It has a special quality in its interiors.
- Houses intricate designs made of mother of pearl on the door arch tile work on the bottom part of the walls and ceiling, as well as pillars with wooden carvings.
- It called as “Ashtur“, located near “Chaukhandi of Hazrat Khalil Ullah”
- Major attractions at Ashtur is the tomb of Sultan Ahmed Shah Wali Bahmani which houses a big mural
- Upper part of the wall displays the name of the sultan.
- The paintings have been done in natural pigments, with some parts decorated with original gold leaf (gold foil).
- Huge ceiling is intricately engraved with Arabic letters and floral designs.
- Mahmud Gawan Madrasa stands high, with its tall minarets featuring Arabic calligraphy and geometric patterns.
- This is a three-storey building, was once an international residential education
Chaukhandi, a tomb
- It of Sufi saint Khalil-Ullah Kirmani, built in the shape of a crown with an octagonal-shaped plan, is decorated with stucco work and calligraphy on black stone.
- It took birth in Bidar and was patronised under Ahmed Shah Wali Bahmani.
- He invited metal engraver expert Abdulla-bin-Kaiser from Persia, who later trained local goldsmiths to decorate the royal courts.
- This art is generally made of zinc, lead and copper alloy embedded with pure silver on the outer surface and is placed in boiled fort soil that gives it a black tint.
- The District Administration has decided to hold Bidar Utsav in from January 7 to 9.
- The event will feature and celebrate the rich cultural heritage of the district.
- The Utsav should celebrate not just the history, but also the Bidri artisans to make the famous artefacts.
Bidar is a tourist destination for many scholars from across the globe visit for their research. The people of this region revere Ahmed Shah Wali Bahmani as a Sufi saint for his contributions.