Published on: January 5, 2023

600 years of the Bahmani capital

600 years of the Bahmani capital

Why in news?  Nearly 600 years ago, shifting the Bahmani Sultanate’s capital from Gulbarga to Bidar brought about a great change in culture, art and architecture of the region.


  • The ninth Sultan of the Bahmani Empire, Ahmed Shah Wali Bahmani made Bidar his capital and ruled from 1422 till 1436.
  • This ruler made Bidar beautiful by inviting artisans and architects from Turkey and Persia.

Local talents

  • Ahmed Shah Wali Bahmani involved local talents to add an Indo-Islamic touch to Bahmani architecture.
  • After the fall of the Chalukya dynasty, the local artisans, who were experts in temple carving, began to get involved in Bahmani work.


  • It was an gave an opportunity for artisans to develop a new style the fusion of Indo-Islamic art and architecture(began).
  • Monuments has outer parts of the structures with many intricate and decorative forms of detailed craftsmanship.
  • In the unique Bahmani style, most structures are built in Turkish design,
  • The doors, windows and platforms are built in Indo architecture style using black stone.
  • The depiction of living things in Islam is restricted, the artists have carved floral and geometrical patterns.


Gagan Mahal

  • Originally built by the Bahamani kings and some alterations and additions were made by the Barid Shahi rulers.
  • Outer court was used by the male staff and guards and inner for the accommodation of the guards.
  • Main building of the palace was for the use of the sultan and his harem.

Takht Mahal

  • Royal Palace, was built by Ahemd shah.
  • It was the royal residence.
  • The place was fully decorated with coloured titles and stone carvings
  • Coronations of several Bahamanis and Barid Shahi sultans were held there.

Solah Khamba Mosque (Solah Sutoon Ki Masjid)

  • It was built by Qubil Sultani between 1423 and 1424.
  • The mosque derives its name from the 16 pillars that are lined in the front of the structure.
  • Popularly known as the Zanana Masjid
  • This mosque is one of the largest in India.

Rangeen Mahal

  • It has a special quality in its interiors.
  • Houses intricate designs made of mother of pearl on the door arch tile work on the bottom part of the walls and ceiling, as well as pillars with wooden carvings.

Bahmani Tombs

  • It called as “Ashtur“, located near “Chaukhandi of Hazrat Khalil Ullah”
  • Major attractions at Ashtur is the tomb of Sultan Ahmed Shah Wali Bahmani which houses a big mural
  • Upper part of the wall displays the name of the sultan.
  • The paintings have been done in natural pigments, with some parts decorated with original gold leaf (gold foil).
  • Huge ceiling is intricately engraved with Arabic letters and floral designs.



  • Mahmud Gawan Madrasa stands high, with its tall minarets featuring Arabic calligraphy and geometric patterns.
  • This is a three-storey building, was once an international residential education

Chaukhandi, a tomb

  • It of Sufi saint Khalil-Ullah Kirmani, built in the shape of a crown with an octagonal-shaped plan, is decorated with stucco work and calligraphy on black stone.

Bidri art

  • It took birth in Bidar and was patronised under Ahmed Shah Wali Bahmani.
  • He invited metal engraver expert Abdulla-bin-Kaiser from Persia, who later trained local goldsmiths to decorate the royal courts.
  • This art is generally made of zinc, lead and copper alloy embedded with pure silver on the outer surface and is placed in boiled fort soil that gives it a black tint.

Bidar Utsav

  • The District Administration has decided to hold Bidar Utsav in from January 7 to 9.
  • The event will feature and celebrate the rich cultural heritage of the district.
  • The Utsav should celebrate not just the history, but also the Bidri artisans to make the famous artefacts.

Bidar is a tourist destination for many scholars from across the globe visit for their research. The people of this region revere Ahmed Shah Wali Bahmani as a Sufi saint for his contributions.