Published on: December 28, 2022

AI for Bacterial pathogens

AI for Bacterial pathogens

buy Pregabalin cheap uk Why in news? Researchers at the buy accutane malaysia Indian Institute of Science (IISc) have worked with a combination of Raman spectroscopy and AI for quicker identification of bacterial pathogens in different types of clinical samples

Highlights:

  • it is an efficient, cost-effective method of identifying the causative bacteria
  • It could help clinicians treat symptoms of infectious diseases with greater precision
  • Current gold-standard tests are either time-consuming like culture tests or work only with specific types of samples

How does this combination works?

  • In Raman microspectroscopy, an optical microscope is used to flash a laser beam on the sample.
  • The unique spectrum from the light scattered by the bacterium helps in its individual identification.
  • The AI component expands the scope of the analysis, to include accurate classification of complex data sets and ensure that even subtle differences among the spectra are tracked.
  • While conventional methods of identifying the bacterium that involve culturing take 24 to 48 hours, the spectroscopy-AI combination does it in significantly less time.
  • The combination of Raman spectroscopy and AI could be used to detect Covid biomarkers in blood sample
  • The work won the Challenger Award at the NASSCOM AI Game Changer Awards programme in 2021.

What is ResNet?

  • It is a residual network, a deep transfer learning model was used to extract spectral features of eight pathogenic bacterial species, with a 99% classification accuracy.
  • The model was also validated on blinded data sets a mix of cultured and non-cultured samples of various origins and types.
  • The deep transfer learning approach involves a data augmentation method it increases the volume of spectra that are needed for the analysis.
  • The accuracy is based on limited clinical data, analysed in a laboratory setting.

What is Biomarker ?

  • It is a measurable indicator of some biological state or condition.
  • They are often measured and evaluated using blood, urine, or soft tissues to examine normal biological processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention.
  • Various types of molecules, such as DNA (genes), proteins or hormones, can serve as biomarkers

The three main classes

  • Molecular biomarkers, cellular biomarkers or imaging biomarkers.
  • All three types of biomarkers have a clinical role in narrowing or guiding treatment decisions and follow a sub-categorization of being either predictive, prognostic, or diagnostic.