Published on: May 24, 2023

International day for biological diversity

International day for biological diversity

Why in news? The International Day for Biological Diversity, celebrated on May 22, is a global observance that highlights the importance of biodiversity and its crucial role in sustaining life on Earth.


  • This day serves as a reminder of the incredible diversity of species, ecosystems, and genetic resources that make our planet unique. It is a time to reflect on the web of life and recognise the intricate connections between humans and the natural world.
  • The International Day for Biological Diversity aims to raise awareness about these challenges and promote efforts to protect and conserve biodiversity.
  • The theme for this year’s commemoration is “From Agreement to Action: Building Back Biodiversity.” This theme is a continuation of the outcomes from COP 15, where the world witnessed the establishment of the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework, signifying a significant milestone.

What is biodiversity?

  • Biodiversity encompasses the variety of plants, animals, microorganisms, and the ecosystems they inhabit. It is the foundation of our food, water, air, and overall well-being. The alarming rate of species extinction, habitat loss, and degradation poses a significant threat to biodiversity.
  • Biodiversity faces unprecedented threats, such as habitat loss, climate change, pollution, and overexploitation.
  • It is vital for sustainable development. It plays a crucial role in providing ecosystem services such as clean air and water, pollination, soil fertility, and climate regulation.


  • The International Day for biological diversity has its roots in the history of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, also known as the Earth summit, held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992. During this conference, various world leaders recognised the urgent need to address the globally declining biodiversity. Therefore, several countries adopted the Convention on Bological Diversity (CBD) on May 22, 1992.