Published on: December 6, 2022
Why in news?
Around 48 lakh children, between the age group of 1 and 15 years, in the State will receive the Japanese Encephalitis vaccine in a special vaccination drive which will start from December.
- While a total of 68,000 cases of Japanese Encephalitis are reported in the country every year, around 20-30% patients die because of the disease.
- Among cured, 30% to 50% of people end up with sensory and motor weakness, and other permanent physical and mental disabilities
- The children will be vaccinated free of cost by the Union government.
- Primary Focus : Private and government schools followed by health institutions, Anganwadi centres and among communities.
- Endemic districts: Ballari, Raichur, Koppal, Vijayapura, Chikkaballapur, Kolar, Mandya, Dharwad, Chitradurga and Davangere districts
- Additional Japanese Encephalitis campaign : Bagalkot, Dakshina Kannada, Gadag, Hassan, Haveri, Kalaburgi, Tumakuru, Ramanagar, Udupi and Yadgir districts during the non-transmission period.
About Japanese Encephalitis
- Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a flavivirus related to dengue, yellow fever and West Nile viruses, and is spread by mosquitoes.
- It is an infection of the brain caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV).
- Most infections result in little or no symptoms, occasional inflammation of the brain occurs.
- Symptoms : Headache, vomiting, fever, confusion and seizures(5 to 15 days after infection)
- Spread by mosquitoes, specifically those of the Culex type
- Reservoir for the virus: Pigs and wild birds
- Treatment involves supportive care.
- A vaccine is available.
- 24 countries in the WHO South-East Asia and Western Pacific regions have endemic JEV transmission
Japanese Encephalitis in India
- The first case of JE : Vellore, Tamil Nadu.
- The first major JE outbreak : Burdwan district of West Bengal and another major outbreak was reported in Uttar Pradesh
- The first case of JE was reported in Karnataka from Kolar district in 1978.
A vast majority of cases occur in children less than 15 years of age.