Published on: February 11, 2023

Lithium deposits

Lithium deposits

Why in news? The Geological Survey of India (GSI) has established “inferred” lithium resources of 5.9 million tonnes in Salal-Haimana area of Reasi District of Jammu and Kashmir.


  • India currently relies on import of lithium, nickel, and cobalt.
  • Lithium-ion battery costs rose as a demand in Electric Vehicle era.

About Lithium

  • Lithium is about half as dense as water and the lightest of all metals.
  • In its pure elemental form it is a soft, silvery-white metal,
  • It is highly reactive and never is found as a metal in nature.
  • It is more abundant than some of the better-known metals, including tin and silver.
  • Lithium occurs in most rocks as a trace element, with the lithium substituting for magnesium in common rock forming minerals,

What is ‘Inferred Resources (G3)’?

  • Inferred resources is a part of a mineral resource for which tonnage, grade and mineral content can be estimated with a low level of confidence.
  • It is inferred from geological evidence and assumed but not verified geological and/or grade continuity.

Global Reserve of Lithium

  • Chile holds the first position as the largest producer of Lithium.
  • Bolivia , Argentina , Australia and China are one of top reserve of this mineral

Note : “ABC” lithium-producing countries are  Argentina, Bolivia, and Chile

Why is the discovery of lithium in India a big deal?

  • As the world transitions from gasoline and diesel to electric vehicles, the demand for lithium is going up rapidly too.
  • Lithium is used not only in EVs but also in batteries for gadgets like laptops and mobile phones.
  • It has also found application in the glass and ceramics industries.
  • As the world tries to wean itself off dependence on China for crucial battery materials, India can take bold steps to position itself as an alternative in the electric vehicle supply chain.
  • It is used in certain psychiatric medications and in dental ceramics.
  • The lighter of two lithium isotopes 6 Li was used in the production of tritium for nuclear weapons

About Geological Survey of India

  • It is a scientific agency of India.
  • Founded in 1851, as a Government of India organization under the Ministry of Mines, one of the oldest of such organisations in the world and the second oldest survey in India after Survey of India.


  • It mainly functions for conducting geological surveys and studies of India
  • Prime provider of basic earth science information to government, industry and general public.
  • It is official participant in steel, coal, metals, cement, power industries and international geoscientific forums.