Published on: September 1, 2021



What : Democracy is a system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state, typically through elected representatives

Elements of a democracy: Constitution and laws

Working :

  • In healthy democracies, citizens participate effectively in the shaping of the policies and laws by which they are governed.
  • Democratic constitutions provide elected assemblies for citizens’ representatives to shape new policies and pass laws.
  • Open-minded deliberation in these forums is necessary to meet the requirements of democracy.

Issues in Indian Democracy

  • Regional parties gaining importance across states.
  • We have moved towards multi-party system, with fractured mandates becoming the norm.
  • Discretionary powers of the governor.
  • Government formation now seems to be like who approaches the governor the fastest to stake claim to form the government.
  • The issue of office of profit.
  • Migration causing low voter turnout.
  • Freebies given by political parties during elections.
  • Disruptions in parliament. The duration for which Parliament meets in India, compared with other democracies, is short.
  • Illiteracy, Poverty, Gender Discrimination, Casteism, Communalism, Religious Fundamentalism, Regionalism, Corruption, and Criminalization of Politics.
  • Anti-Defection law does not seem to be doing much to stop MLAs from defecting.
  • This is primarily because MLAs are offered back-door entry to assemblies by rival parties.
  • Ethics of post-poll alliances.
  • Unlike pre-poll alliances, where the voters are aware of whom they are voting for, post-poll alliances present a new set of challenges. The post-poll alliance is seen as a betrayal of the trust of the voters by many.
  • Misuse of data on social media sites, privacy of users and the power of social media to influence important political outcomes.
  • The indiscriminate use of exemption for the office of profit.
  • For instance same posts are exempt from the purview of office of profit in some states, while they are deemed as office of profit in others.
  • While there are posts of parliamentary secretaries in several states, such posts were denied to Delhi and some states.
  • Dynastic politics, lack of strong opposition at the centre and Religion based politics. Ex: Government’s decision to classify Lingayats as a religious minority in Karnataka.
  • The delay in disposal of cases by the courts is a concern to people.

Way forward

  • Universal literacy i.e. education for all, poverty alleviation, elimination of gender discrimination, removal of regional imbalances, administrative and judicial reforms and sustained economic, social and environmental development.
  • What is required is a set of rules which would curb the menace of defection as well as the misuse of powers of the governor’s office.
  • A defecting MLA must be disqualified from contesting or becoming a minister for at least six years.
  • A distinction needs to be drawn whether a member is leaving a party for ideological differences or for money and power.
  • In case of hung assembly, whether the governor must call the single largest party first, or a postpoll alliance, the process must be uniform across the country.
  • The governors’ discretionary powers must be abolished and replaced with clear guidelines based on the Sarkaria Commission.
  • Stricter data protection laws are required to ensure that political parties do not indulge in practices that involve undue influencing of voting behaviour.
  • Voter education, electoral reforms and periodical highlighting of the performance (or nonperformance) of elected representatives should be high priority.
  • People must exercise their right to vote, participate in democracy and contribute towards the development of the country.
  • The youth must be aware of the problems that the country is facing and choose the candidate who is most likely to bring about a change
  • Democracy cannot survive without both citizens’ participation and politicians’ accountability.
  • The promises of democracy can only be realised through collective action in civil society.
  • The state must respect the articulation of the politics of voice and not just the politics of the vote