Published on: April 26, 2022

MALARIA IN KARNATAKA

MALARIA IN KARNATAKA

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Karnataka has been elevated from Category II (pre-elimination phase) to Category I (elimination phase) by Union Health Ministry

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  • Karnataka has received national recognition and appreciation for its efforts to eliminate malaria in the past six years, between 2015 and 2021, as part of the National Framework for Malaria Elimination in India (NFMEI) initiative.
  • The Union Health Ministry has issued a certificate of appreciation to Karnataka on the occasion of world Malaria Day observed on April 25
  • States and Union Territories with an Annual Parasite Incidence (API) of less than one case per 1,000 population at risk and some districts reporting an API of one case per 1,000 population have been classified as Category 2 states. Karnataka that was under Category 2 has now been elevated to Category 1

MALARIA

  • Mosquito-borne infectious disease
  • Caused by various species of the parasitic protozoan microorganisms called Plasmodium
  • The first evidence of this protozoan came from mosquitoes preserved in amber nearly 30 million years ago.
  • It is even thought to have brought the Roman Empire to its knees. Malaria was so prevalent during the Roman times that the disease is also called ‘Roman Fever’
  • Today, the credit for actually discovering the parasite is given to Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran, a French physician. He even won the Nobel Prize in 1907 for his findings.
  • Causes of Malaria
    • Bitten by a malarial vector (Anopheles stephensi)
    • Use of shared and infected syringes
    • Organ transplantation
    • From an infected mother to her baby during birth

Features of the National Strategic Plan for Elimination of Malaria

  • It is a year-wise detailed strategy with operational guidelines for each state for the elimination of Malaria.
  • The goal is to achieve universal detection of cases, 100% diagnosis of suspected cases, and provide adequate treatment services in Malaria endemic districts.
  • It aims to preserve a “Malaria-free” status in the areas where there has been an interruption in the transmission.
  • The districts are categorized based on the Annual Parasite Incidence (API) with a plan to totally eliminate indigenous Malaria cases in category1 (API<1 per 1000 population) & category 2(API >1<2 per 1000 population) districts and to bring category 3 districts (API>2 per 1000 population) under pre-elimination & elimination programme by the year 2022.
  • Funds will be managed from government sources, Corporate Social Responsibility of the corporate sector, and from international donations.

WORLD MALARIA DAY

  • Annually on the 25th of April World Malaria Day is observed across the world to highlight the need for sustained political commitment and continued investment so as to prevent and control malaria across the world.
  • The World Health Organization has continuously highlighted the need for and also called for innovations and investments to bring in new vector control approaches, antimalarial medicines, diagnostics, and other tools that will help in fighting against malaria.
  • The theme of World Malaria Day 2022 :The theme for this year’s world malaria day is “Harness innovation to reduce the malaria disease burden and save lives.”
  • The day is significant as despite being a treatable disease, Malaria continues to impact the livelihoods of people all over the world.

ALSO IN NEWS : Karnataka has set a target to eliminate malaria by 2027, three years before the 2030 target set by the Union government.