Published on: April 19, 2022


cheap antabuse online WHAT – Deficiencies, excesses or imbalances in a person’s intake of energy and/or nutrients
  • Undernutrition – This includes stunting (low height for age), wasting (low weight for height), underweight (low weight for age) and micronutrient deficiencies or insufficiencies (a lack of important vitamins and minerals)
  • Overnutrition – This includes overweight, obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases (such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, cancer, and type-2 diabetes.)
  • Marasmus – It is a form of severe malnutrition. Nutrient deficiency is the main cause of marasmus. It occurs in children that don’t ingest enough protein, calories, carbohydrates, and other important nutrients. This is usually due to poverty and a scarcity of food.
  • Kwashiorkor – It is a form of severe protein malnutrition. In this type malnutrition produced by a severely inadequate amount of protein in the diet.
  • Barriers to health services 
  • Poverty that hinders the accessibility of adequate food
  • Social strains on Women (Early marriages of girls resulting in low birth weight of the newborns, poor breastfeeding practices )
  • Lack of availability of safe drinking water hinders
  • Poor sanitation (linked to transmission of diseases such as cholera, diarrhoea, dysentery, hepatitis A, typhoid and polio and exacerbate stunting)
  • Illiteracy in women and large household size
  • Lack of Awareness about nutritional needs of infants and young children
  • Increased vulnerability to diseases: Undernutrition increases the risk of infectious diseases like diarrhoea, measles, malaria and pneumonia.
  • Developmental delays: Chronic malnutrition can impair a young child’s physical and mental development. Cognitive impairment resulting from malnutrition may result in diminished productivity in academic performance.
  • Low productivity later in life: As per estimates of World Bank, childhood stunting may result in a loss of height among adults by 1%, which may further lead to a reduction in individuals economic productivity by 1.4%
  • Poor maternity health: Undernutrition puts women at a greater risk of pregnancy-related complications and death (obstructed labour and hemorrhage).
  • Barrier to socio-economic development: Widespread child undernutrition greatly impedes a country’s socioeconomic development and potential to reduce poverty
  • As per NITI Aayog’s report (Nourishing India: National Nutrition Strategy) five districts of Karnataka-Ballari, Bagalkot, Koppal, Kalaburagi and Yadgir are among the 100 poor performing districts with very high levels of stunting.
  • In the case of wasting, Karnataka is in the seventh position. In the state, 32% of children are underweight and Karnataka stands at ninth position in the prevalence of underweight children
  • Volunteers from Jagruthi, an organisation that worked with underprivileged children in Belagavi
  • Conducted a survey in three taluks – Hukkeri, Khanapur, Kittur – in Belagavi. As many as 400 children in each taluk in the 0-6 age group were identified for survey purposes.
  • Found severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in many children
  • Key reason behind the persistence of malnutrition, apart from poverty, was a lack of awareness on nutrition management
  • For example, they found that a powdered multi-grain mixture known locally as ‘Pushti’ provided under the Integrated Child Development Services was being fed to cattle instead of children due to misconceptions(Example – Kids developed diarrhoea)
  • Volunteers provided general nutrition awareness and discouraged junk food, providing alternatives with snacks that could be made at home like peanut laddu
  • The team spent about three months teaching parents about nutrition and how to make use of of the nutrition kits provided by anganwadis
  • The malnutrition rate, which was as high as 27% (Khanapur) in August 2021, came down to 5% in October and further dipped to zero in December
  • During the pandemic and subsequent lockdown, anganwadi centres were closed and mid-day meals stopped. There was delay in anganwadi workers distributing nutritional kits to the children at doorsteps
  • Substantial improvements across malnutrition indicators in the states of India would require an integrated nutrition policy. These improvements include providing clean drinking water, reducing rates of open defecation, improving women’s status, enhancing agricultural productivity and food security, promoting nutrition-sensitive agriculture.
  • Integrated nutrition policy can be brought by harmonization of efforts across ministries, political will and good governance.
  • Such coordinated efforts will ensure that essential nutrition services reach the most deprived communities.
  • POSHAN Abhiyaan which is India’s flagship program, envisages improving nutritional outcomes for children, adolescents, pregnant women and lactating mothers, is a step in the right direction. However, it would require long-term investments in health, sanitation and nutrition in preventing deaths due to severe acute malnutrition.
  • Panchayats should be allowed to have a bigger say in running welfare schemes.
  • Public Distribution System should be diversified, to include millets.
  • Strengthen MGNREGA to ensure better food security
MAINS QUESTION : Explain the coordinated efforts can be used to tackle malnutrition in India