Published on: September 18, 2021



What is in news : Every year, 16th September is observed as the International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone layer (World Ozone Day).

Why : Montreal Protocol on Substances that deplete the ozone layer signed by almost every country in 1987

By : United Nation General Assembly

2021 Theme: Montreal Protocol – Keeping us, our food, and vaccines cool.



  • Atmospheric ozone concentrated in a layer in stratosphere.
  • About 9 to 18 miles above Earth’s surface.
  • What does ozone layer do?
    • Absorbs a range of ultraviolet energy
    • Ozone molecule absorbs even low-energy ultraviolent radiation.
    • Splits into ordinary oxygen molecule and free oxygen atom.
    • Free oxygen atom quickly re-joins with an oxygen molecule to form another ozone molecule
    • Ozone-oxygen cycle converts harmful UV radiation into heat and acts as a shield
    • Weakening ozone layer causes skin cancer, cataracts and impairs immune systems.

MONTREAL PROTOCOL:  The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer was designed to reduce the production and consumption of ozone depleting substances in order to reduce their abundance in the atmosphere, and thereby protect the earth’s fragile ozone Layer. The original Montreal Protocol was agreed on 16 September 1987 and entered into force on 1 January 1989.


  • India, as Party to the Montreal Protocol since June 1992, has been successfully implementing the Montreal Protocol and its ozone depleting substances phase out projects and activities in line with the phase out schedule of the Protocol.India has phased out Chlorofluorocarbons, Carbon tetrachloride, Halons, Methyl Bromide and Methyl Chloroform for controlled uses in line with the Montreal Protocol. Currently Hydrochlorofluorocarbons are being phased out as per the accelerated schedule of the Montreal Protocol.
  • India is the first country in world to develop such a document (ICAP), which addresses cooling requirement across sectors and lists out actions which can help reduce the cooling demand.
  • The overarching goal is to provide sustainable cooling and thermal comfort for all while securing environmental and socio-economic benefits for the society.
  • The goals emerging from the suggested interventions stated in ICAP are:
    • Reduction of cooling demand across sectors by 20% to 25 % by year 2037-38.
    • Reduction of refrigerant demand by 25% to 30% by year 2037-38.
    • Reduction of cooling energy requirements by 25% to 40% by year 2037-38.
    • Training and certification of 100,000 servicing sector technicians by the year 2022-23, in synergy with Skill India Mission.
    • Recognize “cooling and related areas” as a thrust area of research under the national S&T Programme.