Administrative Reforms- Since Independence
Comment on the need of Administrative reforms and also on the reforms bought in India since Independence.
Introduction: Define Administrative Reforms along with its importance.
Body: Elaborate on the need of Administrative reforms in the wake of changing society from Ancient to Modern also give some examples of Administrative reforms bought since independence in India with brief explanation..
Conclusion: Conclude by saying how administrative reforms in any society is inevitable and how it makes process of administration easy, transparent, accountable and acceptable.
Public Administration is a continuous process, in this sense; it is an always undergoing reform. Reforms are an obvious response to new challenges confronting state institutions managing public affairs.
‘Administrative Reforms’ has different meanings in different countries as per their political systems. Administrative reforms are mainly concerned with the process and the specific devices, techniques, systems and procedures of national federal governments which identify, prepare support or put into effect improvements in administration or machinery of governments.
The main objective of administrative reforms is to develop and put into effect whatever changes are required to enable the administrative organs of a government to execute public policies in an effective and responsible manner.
In India, administrative reforms have received continuous attention since Independence. There was a transformation of administrative machinery from an instrument of colonial rule and law and order state to that of democracy and development state. New administration was required for more efficient, responsive and sensitive implementation of programmes related to socio-economic development and improvement of public services.
At the time of Independence, it was felt that the existing administrative machinery was not capable of undertaking the responsibility for ‘socio-economic development’ ofthe nation. A need, therefore, has emerged for administrative reforms with restructuring at national and organizational levels. Accordingly, administrative reforms agencies and training institutions were set up to transform from the administration which existed in the pre-independence period to a new administration which is favourable for socio-economic development.
Administrative Reforms since Independence:
Since Independence, to bring about structural and organizational changes in administration for socio-economic development, various commissions and committees have been set up. They are as follows:
- Gopal Swami Ayyanger Committee (1949): Soon after Independence, a comprehensive review of working of the machinery of the central government was undertaken by the Gopalswami Ayyanger Committee which dealt with organizational changes, improvement in the calibre of personnel and improvements in methods of transaction of governmental business.
- Gorwala Committee (1951): The Gorwala Committee was meant for reforms in Public Administration, which was the first attempt to look at the administrative system after ushering in of the system of planning in the country. The committee focused on whether the then administrative machinery and methods were adequate to the requirement of planned development.
- Paul H. Appelby Committee (1953): Paul H. Appleby had made a survey two years following the Gorwala Committee report based on the public administration in India. He recommended that the establishment of ‘organization and management division’ for a continuous study and improvement administrative methods and procedures in India. Besides this, he also recommended establishment of the Indian Institute of Public Administration.
- Administrative Reforms Commission (1966-70): The Indian government appointed an Administrative Reforms Commission in 1966 to make a comprehensive review of the working of the Indian administrative system and to make recommendations relating to the establishment of the Lokpal and Lokayukta, centre state relations, and some other important recommendations related to the technique of administration etc.
- The Second Administrative Reforms Commission: The Second Administrative Reforms Commission was set up on August 31, 2005 by the government of India under the chairmanship of Shri. Veerappa Moily to prepare a detailed blueprint for revamping the public administrative system. The commission was asked to suggest measures to achieve a ‘proactive, responsive, accountable, sustainable and efficient administrating for the country at all levels of the government.’ It has many terms of reference like RTI, Crisis management, Ethics in Governance, Public order etc.
The administrative reform applies to improvements in executive machinery ranging all the way from fundamental realignments in the structure of the government, to relatively minor changes in the methods on carrying of work within a department or ministry.