Ethics- International Relational
What are the ethical dilemmas currently being faced in international relations? How is India dealing with such situations using utilitarian ethics?
- What are the ethical dilemmas faced in international relations? (40-70 words)
- What is Utilitarian ethics (20-30 words)
- How is India using utilitarian ethics? (40-70 words)
- Conclusion (20-30 words)
Ethical dilemmas currently being faced in international relations
A basic issue in international politics is how to reconcile one’s interests with values one professes. Most nations claim their commitment to universal values and try their best to conform to them.
On many occasions, states find it difficult to conduct their behavior as per their values. While most countries pledge their commitment to non-interference and peaceful conduct of foreign policy, in reality, their national interests are defined in realist terms that hurtles them in the path of power maximization and pits them against their co-aspirants.
In certain cases, some states are compelled to put aside their values in their quest for survival and dignity. Example: India’s pursuit of nuclear power in spite of its commitment to non-violence and peace.
Identity tensions are strongly felt and whatever feeds identity tensions and forms them is far from allowing people to be truly free and open in shaping the one world destiny of all of human kind.
The choices are constrained by the necessity of pleasing the domestic political support. The choices may be inhibited by the identity politics. The choices may be constrained by power equations and balances. Example: India believes in Non Alignment. But inorder to secure its strategic and economic interests, we aligned with Russia during the 1970s and today with the wester world.
Use of power by one country against another country to accomplish its international goals and protecting its national interests.
The balance-of-power politics around the world, born out of mutual distrust and sense of insecurity, make it often difficult for nations to strictly adhere to values they profess. Ex: India- Pakistan relationship and our border management strategy.
Utilitarianism is essentially an ethical theory that states that the best action is the one that maximizes utility which Jeremy Bentham, founder of Utilitarianism, described as the sum of all pleasure that result from an action, minus the suffering of anyone involved in the action figures. Thus, it is safe to conclude that Jeremy Bentham too understood that for Greater good of the society, sufferings, to a certain extent, will have to be overlooked, thereby proving that the greater good principal is not necessarily an ethical one
In international relations, national Interests are legitimate and fundamental cause for national policy. National policy when practiced demand negotiation, bargain and balance.
Indian Stand on NAM and panchsheel principles, no first use of nuclear weapon and Gujral's Doctrine are based on Idealism. Idealism includes Optimistic view of political life, human reason, priority to international law, Idea of democratic peace theory to fulfil its own national interest but can be refuted by offensive realist policy . At the same time India's created trade block at Nepal border recently is exercise of realism tradition.
India Pakistan war of 1971 is also a case of conspicuous clash of International ethics and national interests when India interfered in its neighbour matter following huge influx of immigrants, thus protecting its national interest while compromising International ethics. Thus with the larger good, we sacrificed to certain extent the needs of few.
But time and again has aided humanitarian help during earthquake in Pakistan is an act Of International ethics.
Thus understanding of national interest go hand in hand with ethics. National interest hardly go against to ethics which do not sustain in International relations.