GI Tag- Coffee Cultivation in India
In 2019, five Coffee varieties were awarded GI Tag. What does this entail for Coffee growers? Write a short note on Coffee Cultivation in India.
Introduction: (up to 30 words) Start off with how Coffee is grown in different parts in India and how GI tag is a welcome
Body: (up to 100 words) The benefits of GI tag and distribution of coffee in India
Conclusion: (up to 30 words) Conclude by pointing how Coffee from India will gain more recognition creating an International market for Indian Coffee.
A geographical indication (GI) is a name or sign used on products which corresponds to a specific geographical location or origin (e.g. a town, region, or country). The use of a geographical indication, as a type of indication of source, acts as a certification that the product possesses certain qualities, is made according to traditional methods, or enjoys a certain reputation, due to its geographical origin.
India, as a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO), enacted the Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration & Protection)Act, 1999 has come into force with effect from 15th September 2003. Darjeeling Tea was the first Indian product to get the geographical indication tag in 2004.
The government has awarded Geographical Indication (GI) tag to five varieties of Indian coffee including Coorg Arabica.
- The move is expected to help the growers get maximum price for their premium produce. This also enable the coffee growers to build a reputation and goodwill, which will help in export earning, promotion of tourism in coffee plantations, cultural heritage and national identity.
- Legal protection to GIs protect livelihoods and encourage employment. Owing to the premium prices that many GIs command today, there is a possibility of preserving many traditional skills.
- Benefit to the rural economy by improving the incomes of farmers or nonfarmers.
- The Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade, under the Ministry of Commerce and Industry, has recently awarded this tag to — Coorg Arabica coffee from Karnataka, Wayanad Robusta coffee from Kerala, Chikmaglur Arabica from Karnataka, Araku Valley Arabica from Andhra Pradesh, and Bababudangiris Arabica coffee from Karnataka.
- The Araku coffee is produced by the tribals, who follow an organic approach in which they emphasise management practices involving substantial use of organic manures, green manuring and organic pest management practices, the ministry said in a statement.
- Similarly, it said, Bababudangiris Arabica coffee is selectively hand-picked and processed by natural fermentation.
About coffee plantation:
- In India, coffee is cultivated in about 4.54 lakh hectare by 3.66 lakh coffee farmers of which 98 per cent are small farmers.
- Coffee cultivation is mainly done in the southern states of India including Karnataka, which accounts for 54 per cent of the total production. It is followed by Kerala (19 per cent), Tamil Nadu (eight per cent).
- It is also grown in non-traditional areas such as Andhra Pradesh and Odisha (17.2 per cent) and North East states (1.8 per cent).
- India is the only country in the world where the entire coffee cultivation is grown under shade, hand-picked and sun dried, it said adding the country produces some of the best coffee in the world, grown by tribal farmers in the Western and Eastern Ghats, which are the two major biodiversity hotspots in the world.
- Indian coffee is highly valued in the world market and sold as premium coffee in Europe.
- There are about 250,000 coffee growers in the country; 98% of them are small growers.
- Almost 80% of Indian coffee is exported; 70% is bound for Germany, Russia, Spain, Belgium, Slovenia, United States, Japan, Greece, Netherlands and France. Italy accounts for 29% of the exports.
- Coffee is grown in three regions of India with Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu forming the traditional coffee growing region, followed by the new areas developed in the non-traditional areas of Andhra Pradesh and Orissa in the eastern coast of the country and with a third region comprising the states of Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Tripura, Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh of Northeastern India.
- Indian coffee, grown mostly in southern states under monsoon rainfall conditions, is also termed as “Indian monsooned coffee". The two well-known species of coffee grown are the Arabica and Robusta.