Published on: July 15, 2021



What is in news: The Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM) has provided tap water supply to more than 97 lakh households in five JE-AES (Japanese Encephalitis-Acute Encephalitis Syndrome) affected states.

Other details :

  • The five states with priority districts are Assam, Bihar, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal.
  • JJM envisages supply of 55 litres of water per person per day to every rural household through Functional Household Tap Connections (FHTC) by 2024.
  • The Jal Shakti Ministry is the nodal ministry for the implementation of the scheme.


  • Characterized as acute-onset of fever and a change in mental status (mental confusion, disorientation, delirium, or coma) and/or new-onset of seizures in a person of any age at any time
  • Most commonly affects children and young adults
  • Can lead to considerable morbidity and mortality.
  • Viruses are the main causative agents(Also – bacteria, fungus, parasites, spirochetes, chemicals, toxins and non-infectious agents)
  • Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the major cause of AES in India
  • AES outbreaks in north and eastern India have been linked to children eating unripe litchi fruit on empty stomachs which contain the toxins hypoglycin A and methylenecyclopropylglycine (MCPG)
  • The National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP) in India has set up countrywide surveillance for AES through sentinel sites with a focus on detecting Japanese Encephalitis (JEV). In the sentinel surveillance network, AES/JE is diagnosed by IgM Antibody Capture ELISA, and virus isolation is done in the National Reference Laboratory.

Government Initiatives:

    • Ministry of Health and Family Welfare: Strengthening and expanding JE vaccination, Strengthening of public health activities, Better clinical management of JE/AES Cases etc.
    • Ministry of Jal Shakti for the provision of safe water supply.
    • Women and Child development for providing high-quality nutrition to vulnerable children.
    • Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment for establishing District Disability Rehabilitation Centers for disability management and rehabilitation.
    • Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs for ensuring the supply of safe water in slums and towns.
    • Ministry of Education to provide special facilities for disabled children for their education