Published on: December 16, 2022

Almatti-Pennar Link

Almatti-Pennar Link

Why in news? Raising objection to the formulation of the detailed project report  for the Almatti-Pennar proposed link project, Karnataka has registered its concern over not being indicated or allocated its share of water in the Godavari-Cauvery river linking project.


  • Karnataka has seen a progressive downward slide in its allocation of water from Mahadayi, Godavari, and Cauvery river basin 
  • Diversions  and subsequent abolition of Karnataka’s share in both Krishna and Cauvery basin through a report of National Water Development Agency (NWDA) in 2010 too has affected the State
  • In spite of the assurance, state  has not been indicated or allocated any quantum of water out of surplus water of Godavari basin in the DPR and modified DPR of the Cauvery-Godavari link project,
  • The State’s drought prone area in the country is next only to Rajasthan.

About Almatti-Pennar Link

  • Almatti-Pennar link forms a part of the scheme of transfer of the surplus of Mahanadi and Godavari rivers to the deficit basins of Krishna, Pennar, Cauvery and Vaigai.
  • It is  an important part of the various proposals for inter-basin water transfer proposals under the Peninsular Rivers Development Component of the National Perspective Plan. 
  • Almatti(Krishna) to join Maddileru , a tributary of Pennar near the Malakavemula village  link envisages diversion of 1980 Mm3 of waters from Krishna for enroute utilization in Krishna and Pennar basins.
  • This link canal will give a additional irrigational beneficial to Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh .

About Krishna 

  • It is a river in the Deccan plateau and is the third-longest river in India, after the Ganges and Godavari.
  • Origin : Near Mahabaleshwar, Jor village, Satara
  • Catchment state : Maharashtra, Karnataka, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh
  • Mouth: Bay Of Bengal, Hamsaladeevi, Krishna district, Andhra Pradesh, India
  • Tributaries  
    • Left: Bhima, Dindi, Musi, Paleru, Munneru
    • Right: Kudali (Niranjna) Venna, Koyna, Panchganga, Dudhaganga, Ghataprabha, Malaprabha, Tungabhadra
  • Pilgrim Site : Sangameswaram (Kurnool district ,AP) where Tungabhadra and Bhavanasi rivers join the Krishna river.
  • Godavari River is linked to the Krishna river by commissioning the Polavaram right bank canal
  • The irrigation canals of Prakasam Barrage form part of National Waterway 4.
  •  The Krishna-Godavari delta known as “Rice Granary of India.”
  • Fauna: Last surviving Mangrove forests in the Krishna estuary have been declared as the Krishna Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Mineral deposits: Oil & gas, coal, iron, limestone, dolomite, gold, granite, laterite, uranium, diamonds, etc.

About Almatti Dam

  • Lal Bahadur Shastri Dam is also known as Almatti Dam is a hydroelectric project on the Krishna River
  • It is the main reservoir of the Upper Krishna Irrigation Project
  • Location: Almatti, Nidgundi, Bijapur district of Karnataka 

About Penna River(Pinakini, Pennar, Penner, Penneru, Pennai )

  • It is a river of southern India.
  • Unique river in world where after originating from Nandi hills, it flows as two different streams, one in North and South directions.
  • Catchment state : Andhra Pradesh and  Karnataka 
  • Mouth: Bay of Bengal, Nellore, Utukuru, Andhra Pradesh
  • Tributaries  
    • Left: Kunderu, Sagileru
    • Right: Jayamangali,Chitravathi, Papagni, Cheyyeru
  • Port : Krishnapatnam
  • Forest type : Tropical dry forest, thorn forest, and xeric shrublands

What is the need for river interlinking ?

Regional rainfall variation: 

  • The distribution pattern of rainfall in India is uneven most of the rivers in southern part does not fulfil the demand of the people.
  •  On the other hand, Ganga basin and Brahmaputra basin flooded every years and water goes waste in the sea. 
  • Therefore inter linking of river will help water scarcity regions to have water throughout the years.

Irrigation : 

  • The demand for food is increasing every year and estimated to double by 2030.  It is therefore necessary to increased the area under crop production
  • The proposed inter linking rivers basin will give benefit for food grain production to the water scarce regions. It is estimated to produce 450 million tonnes of food grain by 2050 in India .

To Control Flood and Drought:

  • Ganga and Brahmaputra causes of huge damages in properties and human life every years in the states of Assam, Bihar, West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh. 
  • On other hand, Southern states of Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu faces recurring droughts.
  •  The interlinking of River basin will transfer the flooded Himalayan river to the water deficient rivers of Peninsular India

Generation of Hydroelectric Power:  

Trade and Transport:

  • The linking of rivers will give benefit for the development of Inland waterways to navigate and connect the main industrial centers to transport the goods in more faster way.
  •  This mode of transport will help in reducing air pollution, road congestion and road accidents. 
  • The beautiful en-route scenic will be an addition for the development of tourism industry.

Income Generation:  

  • It  will give more opportunities like fishing, boating and increase in agriculture area utilizing the irrigation infrastructure available. 
  • This will also open up many new routes and ways giving rise to water navigation systems which will connect many region with more efficient and cheaper rate as compare to roadways . Thus, it will lead to development of Tourist Industries.

What are cons in Inter-Linking of Rivers?

  • Inter – linking of rivers will cause huge loss to the environment . The whole ecosystem will change due to the mass deforestation for the construction of the dams and canals.
  • Resettlement of a people to the en-route command area is difficult.
  • The project will not last for a longer period due to the frequent changes in the river course .
  • The amount of pollution in the river may increase as the flood flush the pollution down to the ocean but diversion will increase the amount of concentration in the rivers
  •  The amount of fresh water entering into the seas will reduced which will cause a major ecological disturbance in the marine ecosystem .
  • Total cost of these projects is very huge that the government will have to depend on foreign sources that can fall in a debt trap.
  •  Political relation with the neighbouring countries may disturbed due to the water sharing dispute.