Published on: December 27, 2021
South African anti-apartheid icon and Nobel Peace Prize laureate Archbishop Desmond Tutu passed away
- System of institutionalized racial segregation
- Existed in South Africa from 1948s to early 1990s for Imperial gains
- Characterized by authoritarian political culture based on baasskap ( white supremacy)
- Literal meaning meant “Separateness”
- Lead to total isolation and exclusion of natives from Political, Social and Economical scenario, the effects could be seen in various spheres according to the following ways-
- Political Suppression
- Blacks were not allowed to vote or participate in important political processes.
- Denied all political rights to African blacks.
- There was no Black representation in the government.
- South Africa faced arms embargo and sanctions from UN.
- Social Suppression
- Deprived of any rights, blacks were confined to small locations.
- Blacks were alloted to separate lands called “homelands”
- Separate Schools and Hospitals were opened for Blacks and Whites.
- Income inequalities
- Whites were involved in top jobs, whereas Blacks were involved in labor and maid jobs.
- Inter-racial marriages were prohibited under Marriage Act.
- Non whites were not allowed to use specific public places
- Deprived of any economic resources.
- Made to work for long hours on low wages.
- Land from the whites was taken away and redistributed among the blacks.
- Meager and basic educational qualifications were provided to the natives
- Only one tenth of the budget was allocated in comparison to the budget allocated in white schools.
- Blacks were allowed to take courses only relevant to labor class.
- Psychological Effect
- It captured the imagination of population of South Africa.
- It crushed the confidence of the Blacks.
- The ‘Superiority of whites” was ingrained in their mental construct.
- The effects of psychological suppression could be seen even today.
- Political Suppression
HOW IT ENDED
- In the earlier phase, the movement used violent means and methods. Eg- Bombing and Shooting officials
- Mandela was inspired by M.K.Gandhi and the freedom struggle of India.He, kept the struggle in South Africa Non Violent, used Civil Disobedience and Non Cooperation methods
- Creation of ‘African National Congress’ played to be major institutional vehicles of resistance.
- The African National Congress in 1955 adopted a “Freedom Charter”, which asserted that South Africa, belongs to all those who live in it.
- In 1963, police arrested popular leader, Nelson Mandela and put him in prison where he remained till 1990.
- During 1970s ,the Black students raised their voices at the world stage , resulting which UN General Assembly denounced Apartheid in 1976
- Under International pressure, the national party government in South Africa agreed to take back racial acts & by 1994, a new Constitution free of racial discrimination was enacted and implemented.