Published on: December 27, 2021




South African anti-apartheid icon and Nobel Peace Prize laureate Archbishop Desmond Tutu passed away



  • System of institutionalized racial segregation
  • Existed in South Africa from 1948s to early 1990s for Imperial gains
  • Characterized by authoritarian political culture based on baasskap ( white supremacy)
  • Literal meaning meant “Separateness”
  • Lead to total isolation and exclusion of natives from Political, Social and Economical scenario, the effects could be seen in various spheres according to the following ways-
    • Political Suppression
      • Blacks were not allowed to vote or participate in important political processes.
      • Denied all political rights to African blacks.
      • There was no Black representation in the government.
      • South Africa faced arms embargo and sanctions from UN.
    • Social Suppression
      • Deprived of any rights, blacks were confined to small locations.
      • Blacks were alloted to separate lands called “homelands”
      • Separate Schools and Hospitals were opened for Blacks and Whites.
      • Income inequalities
      • Whites were involved in top jobs, whereas Blacks were involved in labor and maid jobs.
    • Culturally
      • Inter-racial marriages were prohibited under Marriage Act.
      • Non whites were not allowed to use specific public places
    • Economically
      • Deprived of any economic resources.
      • Made to work for long hours on low wages.
      • Land from the whites was taken away and redistributed among the blacks.
    • Educationally
      • Meager and basic educational qualifications were provided to the natives
      • Only one tenth of the budget was allocated in comparison to the budget allocated in white schools.
      • Blacks were allowed to take courses only relevant to labor class.
    • Psychological Effect
      • It captured the imagination of population of South Africa.
      • It crushed the confidence of the Blacks.
      • The ‘Superiority of whites” was ingrained in their mental construct.
      • The effects of psychological suppression could be seen even today.


  • In the earlier phase, the movement used violent means and methods. Eg- Bombing and Shooting officials
  • Mandela was inspired by M.K.Gandhi and the freedom struggle of India.He, kept the struggle in South Africa Non Violent, used Civil Disobedience and Non Cooperation methods
  • Creation of ‘African National Congress’ played to be major institutional vehicles of resistance.
  • The African National Congress in 1955 adopted a “Freedom Charter”, which asserted that South Africa, belongs to all those who live in it.
  • In 1963, police arrested popular leader, Nelson Mandela and put him in prison where he remained till 1990.
  • During 1970s ,the Black students raised their voices at the world stage , resulting which UN General Assembly denounced Apartheid in 1976
  • Under International pressure, the national party government in South Africa agreed to take back racial acts & by 1994, a new Constitution free of racial discrimination was enacted and implemented.