Published on: January 4, 2022



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devotionally The Kalaburagi bench of the high court has said that drawing of the blood sample of an accused to determine the paternity of the child is neither self-incrimination nor violative of Article 20 (3) of the Constitution.


  • Taken care to safeguard the rights of persons accused of crimes.
  • Persons here means the citizens, non-citizens as well as corporations.
  • This article cannot be suspended even during an emergency in operation under article 359.
  • Constitutes the limitation on the legislative powers of the Union and State legislatures.


Ex-Post facto Law

  • No person shall be convicted of any offence except for violation of a law in force at the time of the commission of the Act
  • Legislature cannot make a law which provides for punishment of acts which were committed prior to the date when it came into force
  • New law cannot punish an old act.

Doctrine of Double Jeopardy

  • No person shall be prosecuted and punished for the same offence more than once.
  • Aims to avoid harassment, which must be caused for successive criminal proceedings, where the person has committed only one crime.

Self-Incrimination Law

  • No person accused of any offence shall be compelled to be a witness against himself.
  • Based upon a legal maxim which means that No man is bound to accuse himself.
  • Accused is presumed to be innocent till his guilt is proved
  • Duty of the prosecution to establish his guilt.



  • Testing used for the purpose of verifying the identity of an unknown person.
  • Commonly used in criminal investigations for the purpose of identifying suspects to a crime
  • Also common in other areas of law, such as paternity testing.
  • Work by extracting a sample of DNA from the suspect under investigation.
  • Samples may be obtained by a variety of methods, including fingerprint samples, “swab” samples obtained from inside the cheek, or bodily fluid samples (such as blood).
  • The DNA samples are taken directly from the person in question.