Why in news? The first kambala (buffalo race in slushy paddy fields) of the season was set in motion at Kakkepadavu in Bantwal taluk of Dakshina Karnataka district
- The last Kambala of the season has been scheduled at Panapila in Moodbidri on April 2023
- It is an annual buffalo race held in the southwestern Indian state of Karnataka.
- Traditionally, it is sponsored by local Tuluva landlords and households in the coastal districts
- Places: Dakshina Kannada and Udupi of Karnataka and Kasaragod of Kerala, a region collectively known as Tulu Nadu.
- It has become an organised rural sport, with elaborate planning and scheduling to accommodate competitions at different places.
- Organizer: “Kambala samithis” including smaller remote villages such as Vandaru and Gulvadi
- Kambala season : November and lasts until March.
- The Kambala racetrack is a slushy paddy field, and the buffaloes are driven by a whip-lashing farmer.
- Traditional Kambala was non-competitive, and the pair was run one by one.
- In modern Kambala, the contest generally takes place between two pairs of buffaloes.
- In villages such as Vandaro and Choradi, there is also a ritualistic aspect, as farmers race their buffaloes to give thanks for protecting them from diseases.
- It is a distinct agriculture-based celebration in Tulunadu.
- This refers to a kind of collective ploughing and planting on a fixed day for the enelu cultivation.
- A general race of buffaloes is known as kori
Kadri Kambala( Arasu Kambala)
- It used to be held at Kadri, Mangalore
- Also called Devera Kambla as it is associated with Sri Manjunatha Temple in that city.
- This event was patronised by the Alupa kings of Mangalore, 300 years ago.
- The kambla influenced by Natha pantha,
- Earlier days, the Kambla starts previous day evening with tradition dance of Koraga communities mostly by men.
- Kambala had also stirred controversy in the past with the charge of ill-treatment of animals.
- In 2014, based on lawsuits filed by animal welfare organizations, the Supreme Court of India ordered a ban on Kambala.
- The Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (Karnataka Amendment) Ordinance, 2017 re-legalized the Kambala festival in Karnataka.
- Then-President of India, Pranab Mukherjee, promulgated the new law 2017.
- Litigation continued but was resolved by the passage of the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (Karnataka Amendment) Bill, 2018, which then-President Ram Nath Kovind approved on
- The Supreme Court has also issued several guidelines to ensure that kambala buffaloes are not harmed, tortured or ill-treated during the races.