Internal Migration in Karnataka
Internal Migration in Karnataka
COVID 19 brought out the “internal migration” issue in Karnataka. Comment on causes for such rampant migration in the state. Suggest few measures to address the same.
Introduction: (upto 30 words) Give introduction to Immigration and Emigration.
Body: (upto 100 words) Explain the causes of migration in General and specific to Karnataka.
Conclusion: (upto 30 words) End by suggesting measures to address the issue- Short terma and long term
Immigration: Migrants who move into a new place are called Immigrants.
Emigration: Migrants who move out of a place are called Emigrants.
There are two sets of factors that influence migration.
The Push factors make the place of origin seem less attractive. Reasons include:
- poor living conditions
- political turmoil
- unpleasant climate
- natural disasters
- socio-economic backwardness
- The migration of females is mainly due to marriages.
The Pull factors make the place of destination seem more attractive than the place of origin. Reasons include:
- Better job opportunities and living conditions
- peace and stability
- security of life and property
- pleasant climate
Like many other Indian states, intra-state migration is not uncommon in Karnataka. The state, however, is primarily known for its pull factors as it draws thousands of labour as well as professionals from other parts of the country every year. Nevertheless, peripheral characteristics are visibly prevalent in this state with dominant features of what might be called the “core” space. Regional disparity has been a political issue in Karnataka and the southern part of the state has been the dominant geopolitical zone of the state. This dynamic is evident in the better quality of basic infrastructure, irrigation facilities, availability of loan etc. in south Karnataka. These factors, essential for overall development of any geopolitical region, are often manifested in push and pull factors and not surprisingly every year thousands of people, especially marginal farmers and landless agricultural labour, migrate from north Karnataka to south Karnataka as well as 12 other states like Goa and Maharashtra. Karnataka’s migration patterns present a good example to research development of “underdevelopment” within a somewhat “developed” geopolitical zone.
- Majority in Karnataka migrate not in search of better livelihood and life but because there was no work available at their native place.
- Availability and accessibility of livelihood options at local level could check migration substantially.
- Many labours are compelled to live and work in vulnerable condition, often with very limited and even no access to basic facilities like toilet and safe drinking water.
- This context calls for government’s intervention through policy measures.
Some recommendations and policy measures for the purpose have been mentioned below:
Short Term Recommendations
- Effective implementation of MNREGS and generating livelihood options at local level
- Ensuring farmer’s access to seeds, fertilizer etc. at subsidized rates and also availability of loan at lower interest rate
- Ensuring easy access to credit to small entrepreneurs and petty traders
- Stringent law/policies to counter monopoly of unregistered contractors
- Effective implementation of redressal mechanism
- Strengthening bodies and cells meant for protection of women workers’ rights and ensuring their safety at work place
- Creating provision for organizing regular training workshops to educate workers’ about their rights
- Creating provision for organizing workshops on gender sensitization
Long Term Recommendations
- Adequate measure to generate employment at local level
- Enhancing awareness about Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MNREGA)
- Convergence of MNREGA with other developmental programmes/projects at local level
- Ensuring easy access to good quality health care services and education for children (specially in other states as most of the migrant labours of Karnataka were appreciative about the quality and accessibility of education and health care services at their native place)
- Effective implementation of welfare policies, specially pertaining to income generation, health and education
- Stringent policies to discourage child labour
- Stringent policies to stop gender based wage discrimination
- Effective implementation of policies for protection of rights of migrant women and children
- Effective role of anti-sexual harassment committees
- Ensuring registration of migrant workers and issue them identity cards
- This identity card should also ensure their access to: - PDS shop at migration destination - Public health care institutions - Government schools
- Formulation of policies to ensure migrant workers’ easy access to basic services such as health, sanitation and also other necessary welfare services
- Stringent policies to discourage violation of migrant workers’ rights; exploitation of women migrant workers; wage discrimination; and child labour
- Formulation of policies/laws to regulate unregistered contractors
- Provision to organize training workshop on rights of migrant workers at work sites for workers, employers and management staff
- Provision to organize gender sensitization workshops at work sites for both male and female workers as well as employers and management staff
Measures needed to be taken during lockdown:
- Government should identify the migrants, homeless and other poor people who are on the roads in the city without shelter and food. These people Should be respectfully picked up and taken to the nearest hostels which have been declared as relief centres and be provided with proper accommodation, food and health facilities at the centres.
- The action should continue till all such migrant workers are identified in the city and lodged in the shelter homes.
- According to the Karnataka Municipal Corporations (Ward Committee) Rules, 2016, Disaster Management Cells at ward level need to be formed by the Chairperson of Ward Committees. They should be directed to identify the migrants and assist them.
- The State Government to issue requisite directions to all the urban local authorities in the State to take steps for identification of various categories of migrants having shelter and migrants as well as homeless people stranded on the streets, and also to trace the migrant workers from other States who are in the State of Karnataka.
- The existing camps or in the newly opened camps food, clean drinking water, access to clean toilets and medical should be provided.
- The people belonging to the vulnerable groups who do not have ration cards should provided with prepared food or dry ration. Dry ration kits should be supplied at the door steps of the individuals identified by the local officials.