Published on: December 3, 2021

1971 INDO-PAK WAR

1971 INDO-PAK WAR

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order generic accutane Victory of India in 1971 war is being commemorated

ABOUT THE WAR

BACKGROUND

  • Cause of concern – Issues of East Pakistan /Bangladesh
  • Protest of East Pakistan
  • Led by Sheikh Mujibur Rehman
  • Announced six-point program for regional autonomy for East Pakistan
  • Started East Pakistani Awami League party which secured a landslide win in Pakistan’s 1970 election
  • West Pakistani establishment called on the military to suppress dissenters in East Pakistan.
  • Mujibur was arrested
  • Awamis took refugee in India
  • Influx of refugees proved burden to India
  • India decides to intervene

WHY DID INDIA INTERVENE

Strategic Factors

  • Hostile West Pakistan and East Pakistan on both sides of its borders.
  • Intensified by the uncertainty in Sino-Indian relations that resulted in the 1962 war
  • Appropriate to preserve long-term strategic interests.

Problem of Migrants

  • Influx of migrants from East Pakistan on the domestic front has generated various problems in the border states.
  • Resources were scarce
  • Constant struggle over the use of these resources between locals and refugees
  • Ethnic and social issues.

Economic Factors

  • Spending immense resources on the economic front to accommodate those refugees
  • India was not in a position to seek long-term spending capital
  • Poor connectivity having a hostile East Pakistan hindered the growth of the north-eastern part of the country

HOW DID THE WAR END

  • Pakistan conducted pre-emptive attacks on Indian airfields, including those in Agra, on 3 December 1971
  • Indira Gandhi was PM of India
  • India replied with retaliatory airstrikes against Pakistan the same night
  • Coordinated air, land, and sea assaults were conducted on Pakistan from all fronts.
  • Pakistan suffered a crushing defeat and it also led to over half of its population being deprived of the region
  • Bangladesh, the new nation, was created
  • Mujibur, who became the first President of Bangladesh, was liberated by Pakistan.
  • In 1972, the Shimla Agreement between India and Pakistan was signed, acknowledging the independence of Bangladesh instead of the return of the Pakistani POWs.
  • In July 2011, Indira Gandhi was awarded the Bangladesh Freedom Award posthumously by the Bangladesh government.

SHIMLA AGREEMENT

  • Between Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and the President of Pakistan, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
  • On 2nd July 1972
  • Withdraw soldiers
  • Considered detailed blueprint For good neighbourly ties between India and Pakistan.
  • Abjure conflict and confrontation that had in the past marred relationships and to work towards the establishment of permanent peace, friendship, and cooperation.
  • Comprises a set of guiding principles agreed by India and Pakistan on a reciprocal basis, to be adhered to by both parties while maintaining relations with each other.