Published on: December 3, 2021
1971 INDO-PAK WAR
Victory of India in 1971 war is being commemorated
ABOUT THE WAR
- Cause of concern – Issues of East Pakistan /Bangladesh
- Protest of East Pakistan
- Led by Sheikh Mujibur Rehman
- Announced six-point program for regional autonomy for East Pakistan
- Started East Pakistani Awami League party which secured a landslide win in Pakistan’s 1970 election
- West Pakistani establishment called on the military to suppress dissenters in East Pakistan.
- Mujibur was arrested
- Awamis took refugee in India
- Influx of refugees proved burden to India
- India decides to intervene
WHY DID INDIA INTERVENE
- Hostile West Pakistan and East Pakistan on both sides of its borders.
- Intensified by the uncertainty in Sino-Indian relations that resulted in the 1962 war
- Appropriate to preserve long-term strategic interests.
Problem of Migrants
- Influx of migrants from East Pakistan on the domestic front has generated various problems in the border states.
- Resources were scarce
- Constant struggle over the use of these resources between locals and refugees
- Ethnic and social issues.
- Spending immense resources on the economic front to accommodate those refugees
- India was not in a position to seek long-term spending capital
- Poor connectivity having a hostile East Pakistan hindered the growth of the north-eastern part of the country
HOW DID THE WAR END
- Pakistan conducted pre-emptive attacks on Indian airfields, including those in Agra, on 3 December 1971
- Indira Gandhi was PM of India
- India replied with retaliatory airstrikes against Pakistan the same night
- Coordinated air, land, and sea assaults were conducted on Pakistan from all fronts.
- Pakistan suffered a crushing defeat and it also led to over half of its population being deprived of the region
- Bangladesh, the new nation, was created
- Mujibur, who became the first President of Bangladesh, was liberated by Pakistan.
- In 1972, the Shimla Agreement between India and Pakistan was signed, acknowledging the independence of Bangladesh instead of the return of the Pakistani POWs.
- In July 2011, Indira Gandhi was awarded the Bangladesh Freedom Award posthumously by the Bangladesh government.
- Between Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and the President of Pakistan, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
- On 2nd July 1972
- Withdraw soldiers
- Considered detailed blueprint For good neighbourly ties between India and Pakistan.
- Abjure conflict and confrontation that had in the past marred relationships and to work towards the establishment of permanent peace, friendship, and cooperation.
- Comprises a set of guiding principles agreed by India and Pakistan on a reciprocal basis, to be adhered to by both parties while maintaining relations with each other.