Published on: August 6, 2021



What is in news : Member nations of the International Monetary Fund have approved the injection of $650 billion SDR to help countries in dealing with mounting debt and economic fallout because of Covid-19 pandemic.

How reserves are allocated by IMF:

  • Reserves are allocated to all the 190 members of IMF in proportion to their quota.
  • 70 percent of the reserves is allocated to Group of 20 largest economies while 3 percent to low-income countries.
  • 58 percent go to advanced economies out of which 42% is allocated to emerging and developing economies.
  • Thus, out of $650 billion, $21 billion will go to low-income countries while $212 billion to other emerging market and developing countries.

Special drawing rights (SDRs)

  • SDR, created in 1969, are supplementary foreign exchange reserve assets which are maintained and defined by the IMF. SDRs are units of account for IMF but not a currency. They represent claim to currency held by IMF member countries.
  • Who allocate SDRs: SDRs are allocated by IMF to countries. It cannot be held or used by private parties.


  • The IMF was formed after the Bretton Woods conference in 1944 in USA. The main function of IMF is to help members overcome balance of payments crisis.
  • Structure:
    • Board of Directors – Annual meeting. 188 members. Country represented by its Finance minister or Central Bank governor.
    • Executive board -Daily work of executing decisions of Board of directors. 24 members [all elected], 19 elected by all and 5 “appointed” by Largest quota holders are USA, UK, Japan, Germany, France.
    • Managing director – 5 year term and reappointment possible. HQ – Washington.